4A - Alkanes definitions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 4A - Alkanes definitions Deck (21):
1

Alicylic

Containing carbon atoms joined together in a ring that is not aromatic

2

Aliphatic

Containing carbon atoms joined together in straight or branched chains

3

Alkane

The hydocarbon homologous series with single carbon-carbon bonds.

General formula = CnH2n+2

4

Alkyl group

A side chain formed by removing a hydrogen atom removed from an alkane parent chain, for example, CH3, C2H5. Any alkyl group is often shown as R.

5

Aromatic

A compound that contains one or more benzene rings

6

Displayed formula

A formula showing the relative positioning of all the atoms in a molecule and the bonds between them

7

Empirical formula

The formula that shows the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element present in a compound

8

Functional group

The part of the organic molecule responsible for its chemical reactions

9

General formula

The simplest algebraic formula of a member of a homologous series

10

Homologous series

A series of organic compounds with the same functional group but with each successive member differing by CH2.

11

Homolytic fission

The breaking of a covalent bond with one of the bonded electrons going to each atom forming 2 radicals

12

Heterolytic fission

The breaking of a covalent bond with both of the bonded electrons going to each atom, forming a cation and a anion.

13

Hydrocarbon

A compound containing hydrogen and carbon atoms only

14

Molecular formula

Formula that shows the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule/compound

15

Radical

A species with an unpaired electron

16

Saturated

Contains single bonds only

17

Unsaturated

Containins a multiple carbon-carbon bond (e.g. a C=C bond)

18

Skeletal formula

A simplified organic formula, with hydrogen atoms removed from alkyl chains, leaving just a carbon skeleton and associated functional groups

19

Structural formula

A formula showing the minimal detail for the arrangements of atoms in a molecule

20

Structural isomerism

Molecules with the same molecular formula but with different structural formulae

21

Substitution reaction

A reaction in which an atom or group of atoms is replaced with a different atom or group of atoms