4D - Alcohols Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 4D - Alcohols Deck (10):

Explain why the water solubility of the alcohols decreases as the chain length increases

Percentage of the molecule that is convered by the hydrogen bonds decrease, hence decreasing the solubility


Conditions required for the dehydration of alcohols?

Heat under Reflux 

Catalyst: Conc Sulfuric Acid ( excess) or Conc Phosphoric Acid


Define elimination

The removal of a molecule from a saturated molecule to make an unsaturated molecule


Name the 2 chemicals you need to make an oxidising agent for the alcohols.


Give the observation for a successful oxidation

Potassium dichromate (VI)

Aqueous sulphuric acid


Orange solution → Green solution


Conditions required for Primary alcohol → aldehyde?


What process is used to seperate out the aldehyde from the reaction mixture?

Oxidising agent

Suphuric acid

Heat under reflux




Conditions required for primary alcohol → carboxylic acid

Oxidising agent

Sulphuric acid

Heat under reflux



1st and 2nd oxidation of a primary alcohol?

1st: alcohol → aldehyde

2nd: aldehyde → carboxylic acid


Conditions for secondary alcohol → ketone

Oxidising agent

Sulphuric acid

Heat under reflux


What happens when tertiary alcohols are heated with acidified potassium dichromate (VI)?

No change


Define nucleophilic substitution

A reactionin which a nucleophile is attracted to an electron-deficient carbon atom and replaces an atom or group of atoms on the carbon atom