Test for a C=C double bond?
Add bromine water to the solution.
Colour change = Orange brown → Colourless if C=C bond is present.
If no C=C bond is present then solution remains orange brown.
Name the mechanism for which you use an alkene to form a haloalkane by: Alkene + Halogen
Give the conditions required for the reaction
Mechanism = Electrophilic addition reaction
Condition = RTP, No UV light
Draw the mechanism for the formation of 1,2-dibromoethane.
What is acting as the electrophile?
Electrophile in this reaction is the bromine.
What type of bond fission is electrophilic addition?
Draw the mechanism for the synthesis of 2-bromopropane.
Why is 2-bromopropane the preferred product in terms of relative stabilities of the possible organic intermediates (carbocations)?
The hydrogen atom will add onto the carbon that has the most number of hydrogens already.
2-bromopropane is the more stable carbocation as carbocation stability will increase as the number of hydrogens around the carbon atom increases.
Name the reaction fo adding water to an alkene
Name the reagents, mechanism name and the organic intermediate when you have: Alkene + Water
Waht do you get as a product?
Alkene + H2O → Alcohol
Mechanism = Hydration reaction / electrophilic addition
Conditions = Heat + H3PO4 Catalyst
Reagents = Water (as steam), H3PO4 Catalyst
Organic intermediate = Alcohol
Name the reaction of when you add H2 to an alkene
Conditions for hydogenation
Why is 100% yield rarely achieved in organic reactions? (2)
-More byproduct is achieved than the desired product
How can the atom economy for the synthesis of a substance be imporved?
Reduce the number of byproducts being formed and only have the desired product forming.
How can percentage yield be improved?
Choose a reaction that doesn't produce many byproducts
Common name + use
Common name = Teflon
Uses = Coating non-stick pans
Common name + use
Common name = Styrene
Uses = Packaging material
Used in the form of polypropene
Making children's toys
Fibres for ropes
Used in the form of polychloroethene
This is a section of a polymer. What is the monomer?
Probems associated with the vast quantities of plastics that are used worldwide? (4)
-Takes a long time to biodegrade
-Animals can ingest it and choke as they can't digest the plastics.
-Gets into water, pollutes the rivers/oceans
-Makes landscapes messy
Name the 3 alternative ways of treating the vasts amount of plastic waste that we get in our world
-Producing Potodegradable and biodegradable polymers
-Reuse of material as a feedstock for the chemical industry
How are addition polymers treated to allow them to be reused by the chemical industry?
They're sorted into the various types of polymers and then copped into flakes, washed, dried and melted.
Recycled polymer is cut into pellets and used by manufacturers to repurpose into new products.