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Flashcards in 5 Anxiety Deck (34):

Is there any difference between anxiety and fear?

DSM differentiates:
- Anxiety is anticipating threat
- Fear is being in immediate presence of threat
But this distinction is not well supported in research


Anxiety is activated in response to _______ ________.

Anxiety is activated in response to perceived threat.


Is there any qualitative difference between normal and abnormal anxiety?

No. It's a question of degree.


Which three interrelated systems undergo change in response to threat?

Physical system
Cognitive system
Behavioural system


What are the physical signals of anxiety?

- SNS activation – fight/flight response
- Sweating, heart rate, trembling etc.


What are 3 cognitive signals of anxiety?

1. Perception of threat
2. Attentional shift and hypervigilance
3. Difficulty concentrating on other information


What are 2 behavioural signals of anxiety?

1. Escape/avoidance
2. Aggression


In what way is anxiety evolutionarily useful?

It helps ensure survival by preparing individual to deal with threat


A threat appraisal generates an _________ of harm

A threat appraisal generates an expectancy of harm


What's the difference between a threatening stimulus and threatening outcome?

Threatening stimulus (e.g. situation) is a cue that threatening outcome (e.g. harm to self) is likely.


Threat appraisal is a product of perceived ________ and perceived _________.

Threat appraisal is a product of perceived probability and perceived cost.


In what four ways can anxiety be learned?

1 Classical conditioning – e.g. in phobias, fear associated with phobic object

2 Instrumental conditioning – e.g. go on bus -> humiliated

3 Observational learning
– e.g. seen others bullied for specific action

4. Instruction
– e.g. parents said sth is dangerous


What do individual differences in trait anxiety predict?

1 Tendency to perceive threat in ambiguous situations
2 Intensity of anxiety


People with high trait anxiety experience anxiety more often and more intensely

People with high trait anxiety experience anxiety more _____ and more ______


The two aspects of overestimation of threat are...

1. Overestimation of risk
2. Overestimation of cost


Physical fears usually involve overestimation of _______.

Social fears usually involve overestimation of _______.

Physical fears usually involve overestimation of risk (e.g. see spot on skin - must be cancer)

Social fears usually involve overestimation of cost (e.g. if people laugh at me, my life will be over)


In what way can pathological anxiety represent a dysfunction?

Anxiety module responding to non-threatening situations. System designed to save you from danger, but being activated when no danger. Hence dysfunction.


If someone is terrified of snakes, but lives somewhere with no snakes, would this count as a disorder?

No, as there is no distress and no interference with life.


In DSM-IV & V anxiety disorders are categorised according to ______ of anxiety.

In DSM-IV & V anxiety disorders are categorised according to focus of anxiety.


What is the difference in the role of avoidance in normal/abnormal anxiety?

In normal anxiety, avoidance saves you. In abnormal anxiety, avoidance maintains anxiety – person never sticks around to learn that their threat estimation is overblown.


What is Separation Anxiety Disorder?

In DSM-IV listed among childhood disorders (only if symptoms onset before 18). Fear of being away from primary caregiver. In DSM-5 extends to adults – fear of separation from primary attachment figure.


What are Social Phobics afraid of?

Negative evaluation, possibility of being embarassed, humiliated.


What is the focus of fear in Panic Disorder?

The fear itself – afraid of having another panic attacks. May develop agoraphobia – avoidance of situations where panic may occur.


What is the point of the compulsions in OCD?

To neutralise intrusive/unacceptable thoughts.


What are the most frequent comorbidities with anxiety disorders?

Most anxieties are comorbid with each other – people tend to have more than one. Also comorbid with depression and with substance use disorder


What are the 4 risk factors for development of anxiety disorders (according to Barlow)?

1. Genetically inherited neuroticism.
High N, more likely to develop ADs and depression.

2. Low perceived control (often with overprotective parents) – also risk factor for depression

3. Trait anxiety

4. Specific psychological vulnerabilities, derived from direct experience, observation and/or instruction


What happened to the classification of Agoraphobia in DSM-5?

It was uncoupled from Panic Disorder – can be severe avoidance not just of panic, but of anything (e.g. incontinence).


How was Selective Mutism redefined in DSM-5?

Used to be disorder for kids who refuse to talk in specific situations (shy). Not just a childhood disorder anymore.


How many months must symptoms of phobias be present in DSM-5?

More than 6 months.


What has changed in the importance of the client's view of their anxiety between DSM-IV and DSM-5?

In DSM-5, it's no longer required that patient believes anxiety to be unrealistic. Judgement of rationality made by clinician.


What are the 7 disorders in the DSM-V Anxiety Disorders chapter? SSSSPAG

1. Separation Anxiety
2. Selective Mutism
3. Specific Phobia
4. Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia)
5. Panic Disorder
6. Agoraphobia
7. Generalized Anxiety Disorder


What are the 5 Trauma- and Stressor-Related disorders? PAARD

1. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
2. Acute Stress Disorder
3. Adjustment Disorders
4. Reactive Attachment Disorder
5. Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder


What are the 5 Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders? OHTEB

1. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
2. Hoarding Disorder
3. Trichotillomania (Hair-Pulling Disorder)
4. Excoriation (Skin-Picking) Disorder
5. Body Dysmorphic Disorder


What 4 new disorders are in the DSM-5 Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders chapter?

1. Hoarding in DSM-IV was seen as a symptom of OCD, but now seen as different in causation and treatment.

2 & 3. Trichotillomania and excoriation migrated from impulse control disorders in DSM-IV. Alleviate distress/anxiety by pulling on hair or picking at skin.

4. Body Dysmorphic Disorder migrated from DSM-IV disorders such as hypochondria. Now anxiety or distress is important. Person believes something is seriously wrong with body – big nose, muscle dysmorphia etc.