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Flashcards in 1 Intro and conceptual issues Deck (22):
1

What four things does abnormal psychology study?

1. Description (classification, diagnosis)
2. Causation
3. Maintenance
4. Treatment...
of psychological/mental disorders

2

What was classified as mental illness before the 19th century?

There was really only one category – insanity. So what would generally rank as psychosis today.

3

How many categories of mental illness are there today?

400+

4

What discipline studies the prevalence of mental disorder?

Psychiatric epidemiology

5

What is prevalence of a disorder?

What proportion of population has a diagnosable disorder within specified time period.

6

What are the three types of prevalence?

Point-prevalence (e.g. right now)

One-year prevalence (e.g. in 2007)

Lifetime prevalence

7

What is incidence of a disorder?

What proportion of healthy individuals will develop the disorder within a specified time period.

8

How do psychiatric epidemiologists go about determining incidence/prevalence?

They use very large normative samples of 10,000+ pps. Cold-calling, interviews etc.

9

What is the lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in adults?

32-48%

10

What is the lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in those under 21?

35-49%

11

What is the lifetime prevalence of any mental disorder among Australians?

45%
or
7.3 million Australians aged 16-85 experience an anxiety, affective or substance use disorder in their lifetime.

12

What percentage of those with mental disorder receive help?

Approximately 1/3

13

Sufferers of which mental disorder are most likely to seek help – and what percent of them do?

Schizophrenia – 48%

14

How does the DSM define a disorder?

"A clinically significant behavioural or psychological syndrome or pattern
... associated with present distress or disability or with a significantly increased risk of suffering death, pain, disability, or an important loss of freedom."

15

When are symptoms NOT a disorder according to the DSM?

When they are "an expectable and culturally sanctioned response to a particular event, for example, the death of a loved one."

16

According to Wakefield, what must a disorder be a manifestation of?

A manifestation of a behavioural, psychological, or biological dysfunction in the individual.

17

What term does Wakefield use to define mental disorder?

Harmful dysfunction

18

What are Wakefield's two criteria for mental disorder?

1) It must arise from dysfunction of some internal mechanism.

2) It must be socially unexpected/inappropriate/unvalued

19

What does Wakefield call the single most serious flaw in current psychological thinking?

The failure to consider whether symptoms are actually harmful internal dysfunctions.

20

Symptoms of what are often erroneously (according to Wakefield) labelled as mental disorders?

Symptoms that are expectable reactions to environmental stressors – and those that are forms of social deviance.

21

What is the result of treating all symptoms as disorders, regardless of internal dysfunction?

Overdiagnosis of disorders.

22

How does Wakefield define dysfunction?

As "the failure of a mental mechanism to perform a natural function for which it was designed by evolution."