Flashcards in 6 Anxiety 2 – Panic Deck (31):
Into what three categories are anxiety disorders split in DSM 5?
1 Anxiety disorders
2 Trauma and stressor-related
3 OCD and related
What was the main treatment for anxiety before CBT?
Amobarbital and Phenobarbital are examples of what?
Name three examples of Benzodiazepines
Valium, Xanax, Rohipnol
What are 4 downsides of using Benzos or Barbiturates for anxiety?
1. Relapse very common
2. Highly addictive
3. Can lead to OD, death
4. Interacts with alcohol
Do pills counteract the cause of anxiety?
No, just the symptoms, by slowing nervous system activity.
What is the percentage of relapse after SSRIs?
20% within six months; 60% within two years
CBT treats anxiety by reducing ________ appraisal and increasing ___________ appraisal
CBT treats anxiety by reducing threat appraisal and increasing coping appraisal
What 3 cognitive techniques exist to manage anxiety?
1. Thought diaries to identify automatic thoughts
- Socratic questioning
- Evidence for/against the belief
- Pros and cons of having thought/belief
3. Cognitive bias modification
Do anxious people want to rid themselves of anxious beliefs?
No. In DSM-5 the criterion that an anxious person knows their anxiety is unrealistic has been deleted.
What bias of attention is typical of anxious people?
Focus on perceived threat in situation, rather than on whole situation. People need to be taught to pay attention to all info, not just threatening bit.
What are the pros and cons of being social phobic?
Pros: if I don't say anything, no one will hate me
Cons: lead socially barren life
Why is holding onto an anxious belief like very expensive life insurance?
Because the cost of the insurance is greater than the thing it covers you for
What behavioural techniques exist to reduce threat appraisals?
1. Exposure to feared stimuli (e.g. public transport)
2. Exposure to feared outcomes (e.g. humiliation)
What is the difference between flooding and systematic desensitization?
Flooding is chucking someone in the deep end (e.g. snake phobic in snake pit)
Systematic desensitization is taking exposure step by step. Draw up exposure hierarchy – start with just saying ‘snake’, then video, then actually touch a snake.
What kind of behavioural intervention is better for correcting appraisals of risk?
Exposure to feared stimulus
What kind of behavioural intervention is better for correcting appraisals of cost?
Exposure to feared outcome
Most symptoms of panic attacks are symptoms of high __________ arousal.
Most symptoms of panic attacks are symptoms of high autonomic arousal.
How long does it take for a panic attack to peak?
Usually a few minutes.
What's the difference between symptoms of panic and symptoms of anxiety?
Nothing. Panic is just high anxiety.
Are panic attacks specific to a type of anxiety?
No, they can occur in the context of any anxiety disorder
What's the difference between cued and spontaneous panic attacks?
Cued – in context of other anxiety disorder, e.g. presence of phobic object
Spontaneous – person cannot identify source of fear
How many unexpected panic attacks are needed for a diagnosis of Panic Disorder?
At least two unexpected panic attacks.
What are panic disorder sufferers afraid of?
Panic attacks and consequences thereof
How long must symptoms persist before a diagnosis of Panic Disorder?
One month or more
According to Clark's 1988 cognitive theory of panic, what is the mechanism driving panic?
Bodily sensations are misinterpreted – these cause anxiety – sensations get more intense – anxiety mounts – spirals out of control
Why don’t PD sufferers learn they’re not going to die after the 200th panic attacks?
They stop themselves from learning through safety behaviours
e.g. sit at end of row at movies so can exit quickly
presence of friend in public places
Is agoraphobia a reaction to panic?
It can be, but in DSM-5 agoraphobia is not just linked to panic – could result from any source of anxiety, e.g. fear of humiliation etc.
What 5 factors predict the development of agoraphobia?
1. High degree of dependent behaviour
2. Weaker beliefs in own coping ability
3. Separation Anxiety, School Phobia
4. Physical concerns: dizziness and fainting
5. More social evaluative concerns
What three broad treatments exist for panic/agoraphobia?
1. Cognitive restructuring – recognise automatic thoughts – then challenge
- to own bodily sensations (send them running up and down stairs; spin around on office chair). Understand that these sensations aren’t going to kill them.
- slowly desensitise to avoided situations (friend take to mall, then alone)
- to feared outcome (e.g. therapist pretends to faint in mall)
3. Reduce safety-seeking behaviours e.g. Get rid of lucky charm (otherwise, sure, the therapist showed me my bodily sensations aren’t dangerous, but I had my amulet)