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Flashcards in 8 Depression Deck (34):

Is there any qualitative difference between depression and normal sadness?



What's the difference in causality between depression and normal sadness?

Depression occurs with no obvious trigger.


What are the two depressive (unipolar) disorders in DSM-IV?

1. Major depressive disorder
2. Dysthymic disorder


What are the three bipolar disorders in DSM-IV?

1. Bipolar 1 disorder
2. Bipolar 2 disorder
3. Cyclothymic disorder


What kind of depression is more common, bipolar or unipolar?



What are the 2 NECESSARY conditions (of at least 5 in total) for major depression in DSM-IV? I.e. you need at least one of these two for a diagnosis

1. Depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day

2. Markedly diminished pleasure/interest in activities


How long is the bereavement exclusion for major depression?

Two months – after that diagnosis is major depression


What is the average number of episodes in the lifetime of major depression sufferers?



Every time you have an episode of major depression, it increases chance of relapse by ___%

Every time you have an episode of major depression, it increases chance of relapse by 16%


What are the 6 subtypes of major depression in DSM-IV?

1. Chronic (2 years or longer)
2. With psychotic features
3. Seasonal onset (Seasonal Affective Disorder)
4. Postpartum onset
5. Atypical (weight gain, oversleep, rejection sensitivity)
6. Melancholic


What are three symptoms of atypical depression, that distinguish it from typical?

1. Weight gain (instead of usual loss)
2. Oversleep (instead of insomnia)
3. Sensitivity to rejection


What are the three alternative subtypes of depression suggested by Parker (2000) of the Black Dog Institute?

1. Melancholic
2. Psychotic
3. Non-melancholic


What is distinctive about the disorder of melancholic depression suggested by Parker (2000) of the Black Dog Institute?

Lack of reactivity. Those with melancholic depression can't be cheered up.


Parker et al. of the Black Dog Institute see melancholic subtypes of depression as ___________ or biological depression

Parker et al. of the Black Dog Institute see melancholic subtypes of depression as endogenous or biological depression


What, according to Parker (2000) are the differences in treatment efficacy between a) melancholic and psychotic depression b) non-melancholic depression?

Melancholic and psychotic depression respond better to biological treatments. Non-melancholic subtypes more likely to respond to placebo and psychological interventions


What is the argument against the distinctiveness of melancholic depression?

Melancholic depression is just really severe depression. Psychological intervention is less effective with severe depression as patient is simply too down to participate effectively in therapy.


What is the DSM-5 name for what was known as Dysthymic Disorder in DSM-IV?

Persistent depressive disorder


How have mood disorders been reclassified in DSM-5?

Mood disorders have been split into:
1) Depressive Disorders
2) Bipolar and Related Disorders


What has happened to the grief exclusion from Major Depressive Disorder?

It's been removed. The bereaved can now qualify as having major depressive disorder.


So... the new category of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder? Who is it for? What are the criteria?

For children who can't regulate their anger.

Criteria include:

Severe recurrent temper outbursts that are grossly out of proportion to the provocation.

Persistent irritability between outbursts.

Diagnosis not to be made before 6 or after 18.


What's the lifetime prevalence of MDD?



What's the one-year prevalence of MDD in Australia?



What are four plausible reasons for the steady increase in prevalence of major depression since the 1950s?

1) Rate of change increased. More stressful lives
2) Decreased social and family support
3) More acceptable to report symptoms
4) Overdiagnosis (only need two weeks of symptoms)


What's the gender (im)balance for major depressive disorder?

2:1 females to males


How does the gender ratio for major depression change across age?

More females than males – EXCEPT in childhood and over 65, where it's 1:1


What is the trend in diagnosis across age?

People are being diagnosed with major depression younger and younger.


What is the erroneous inference made in medical explanations of depression?

Causation is inferred from treatment efficacy.


Using the analogy of taking an aspirin for a headache, what is the error made in the serotonin hypothesis for depression?

It is stated that since SSRIs increase serotonin levels and help depression, the disorder must be caused by low serotonin levels. But by the same logic, a headache could be said to be caused by low aspirin levels.


What is the problem with inferring depression causation from brain structural abnormalities?

These are just correlations, they don’t show causation. Don’t show these differences were there before the depression was there. Depression may have caused these abnormalities. There could also be a third cause of both.


What does the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis do?

Regulates response to stress.


What difference in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis has been found in depressives?

It's overactive.


What effects on the brain are caused by excess cortisol, which might cause depression?

Excess of cortisol may be involved in hippocampal damage and downgrading of Serotonin receptor sensitivity.


What evidence is there that depressives respond to stress differently from normals?

More activity in HPA axis.


What is the biological stress-diathesis model of depression?

That stress is more likely to cause depression in those with a genetic vulnerability.