(5) Nazi Economic, Social and Racial Policy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in (5) Nazi Economic, Social and Racial Policy Deck (37):

What was the National Service Corps? (Reichsarbeitsdienst, RAD)

. It was a scheme to provide young men with manual
labour jobs.
. From 1935, it was made compulsory for all men aged 18-
25 to serve for 6 months.


How did Hitler try to reduce unemployment?

. Job Creation Schemes
. The National Labour Service Corps.
. Invisible unemployment.
. Rearmament.


What was invisible unemployment?

. A method to keep down the unemployment figures used
by the Nazis.
. Opponents of the Nazis, Jews and women dismissed
from their jobs and men under 25 who were pushed into
RAD didn't count towards the total.


What was Rearmament?

. Hitler sent young men to the army to reduce
employment and get the armed forces ready for the
future war.
. Conscription was introduced in 1935. In 1933 there were
100,000 men but by 1939 there were 1,400,000.
. Heavy industry expanded.


What was the German Labour Front?

. In 1933, the Nazis banned all Trade Unions to avoid potential strikes.
. The German Labour Front was introduced with Robert Ley as the leader.
. By 1939, it had 22 million members.


Describe the terms of the German Labour Front, DAF?

. All strikes were banned and wages were decided.
. Workers were given relatively high wages, job security
and social and leisure programmes.
. Workers were given work books which recorded their
employment history.
. It was voluntary but workers found it difficult to get a job
if they were not a member.


What was the Volkswagen scheme?

. In 1938, the German Labour Front organised the
Volkswagen scheme.
. By the end of 1938, more than 150,000 people had
ordered a car and they would expect a delivery in 1940.


What was the Strength through Joy (KDF) programme?

. An organisation set up by the German Labour Front to
replace trade unions.
. It improved the leisure time of many Germans.
. It was set up in 1938.
. In 1938, there were around 10 million people on KDF


What was the Beauty of Work (Schonheit der arbeit)?

. It was a department of the KDF that tried to improve
working conditions.
. It organised the building of canteens, swimming pools
and sports facilities.


Describe how women had made Political Progress during the 1920s

.Women over the age of 20 had the vote and took an
increasing interest in politics.
. By 1933, one-tenth of the Reichstag were female.


Describe how women had made economic Progress during the 1920s

. Many women took up careers in the professions,
especially the civil service, law, medicine and teaching.
. Most women earned the same as men.
. By 1933, there were 100,000 women teachers and 3,000


Describe how women had made Social Progress during the 1920s

. Women went out unescorted, drank and smoked in
. They often wore relatively short skirts, had their hair cut
short and wore make-up.


What made the ideal Nazi women?

. Did not wear make-up
. Was blonde, heavy hipped and athletic
. Wore flat shoes and a full skirt.
. Did not smoke.
. Did not go out to work.
. Took no interest in politics.
. Dud all the household duties, especially cooking and
bringing up pure, German children.


Describe the measures, brought by the Nazis, to change the role of women.

. A massive propaganda campaign was launched to
promote motherhood and large families.
. In 1933, the Law for the Encouragement of Marriage was
. The aim was to give couples loans to help marry, if the
wife left her job.
. In 1938, the Nazis changed the divorce law - a divorce
was possible if a husband or wife couldn't have children.
. The Lebensborn (Life springs) programme where
specially chosen unmarried women could "donate a baby
to the Fuhrer".


What was the principal of the three K's?

. kinder, kuche, kirche - Children, kitchen, church.
. Demoralising for many German women.


What changes were made by the Nazis involving women and work?

. Women doctors, civil servants and teachers were forced
to leave jobs.
. School girls were trained for work at home.
. From 1937, the Nazis had to reverse these policies. (They
needed the women to work as they were rearming).


Did the Nazis methods of making women leave their jobs work?

. No, the amount of women working increased.
. The methods were unsuccessful.


How did the Nazis want women to appear?

. Keep healthy
. Wear their hair in a bun or plaits
. Discouraged from wearing trousers, high heels and


What aspects of the education system were changed?

. Teachers
. Textbooks
. Curriculum
. Lessons


What changes were made to teachers?

. They had to swear an oath of loyalty to Hitler and join the
Nazi Teacher's league.
. By 1937, 97% of teachers had joined.


What changes were made to textbooks?

. They were rewritten to fit the Nazi view of history/
. They all had to be approved by the Ministry of Education.
. Mein Kampf became a standard text.


What changes were made to the curriculum?

. It was changed to prepare students for their future roles.
. Hitler wanted healthy young men so he dedicated 15% of
lessons to physical education.
. They were also taught the Nazi ideology in classes.
. Girls were taught what the Nazis wanted out of a woman.


What changes were made to the lessons?

. They began with the whole class saluting and saying
"Heil Hitler"
. Nazi themes were presented throughout each subject.
For example, Geography was used to show how
Germany were surrounded by hostile neighbours.


What was the Hitler Youth?

. The Hitler Youth was a youth organisation set up by the
. It was a method of controlling the children's leisure time.
. All other youth organisations were banned.
. From 1939, it was made compulsory.
. By 1939, there were 7 million members.


Describe the activities of the Hitler Youth.

. Athletics, hiking, camping, map reading, military skills
and practised marching.
. Learned domestic skills, prepared for motherhood and
marriage and less emphasis on military training.


How successful were the Nazi's policies to control people?

. Some children really enjoyed the comradeship of the
Hitler Youth.
. Many children didn't like being told what to do, and many
no longer want to be commanded.
. Very few realised it was a method of control.


Describe the differences between Nazism and Christianity

. Nazism teaches glorified strength and violence, despised the weak, believed in racial superiority and saw Hitler as a God-like figure.
. Christianity teaches love and forgiveness, helps the weak, has respect for all people and belief in God.


What were Hitler's opinions on religion?

. Hitler saw the Catholic Church as a threat to the Nazi state.
. Hitler wanted to persecute Christianity but he knew he couldn't in a country which was essentially Christian.


What did Hitler do about religion?

. Priests were arrested.
. Monasteries were closed.
. Catholic schools were abolished.
. Catholic youth movements were closed down.


Outcomes of trying to change Religion

. There were some protestants who admire Hitler and they
were called German-Christians.
. They established a new Reich Church hoping to combine
all protestants.
. Most Protestants opposed Nazism and in 1933 a league
was set up for those who opposed Hitler.


How did Hitler believe he could achieve a pure Aryan racial state?

. Selective Breeding
. Destroying the Jews.


What is meant by selective breeding?

. Preventing anyone who did not conform to the Aryan
race from having children.
. SS officers could only marry women of Aryan blood.


Give examples of measures taken against the Jews

. September 1935 - Nuremburg Laws were passed which
were a series of measures against the Jews.
. September 1937 - Jews were now publicly attacked.
. November 1938 - Kristallnacht. Jewish children were
excluded from schools.


When was the Kristallnacht?

8th November 1938


Describe the events of the Kristallnacht

. A young polish jew, Herschel Grynszpan, walked into the
German embassy in Paris and show the first official he
. He was protesting against the treatment of the Jews in
. Goebbels used this as an opportunity to organise anti-
Jewish demonstrations.
. Jewish shops and homes had their windows smashed -
became known as the night of the broken glass.
. 100 Jews were killed and 20,000 were sent to
concentration camps.


What was the aftermath of the Kristallnacht?

. Hitler blamed the Jews completely.
. The Jews were fined 1 billion Reichsmarks as
. Jews could no longer own or manage shops.
. Jewish children can no longer attend Aryan schools.


Describe the Jewish persecution of 1939

. Jews were required to surrender precious metal and jewellery.
. In April, Jews were evicted from homes and sent to ghettos.
. In September, Jews were forced to hand in their radio so they couldn't listen to foreign news.