(1) The Impact of the First World War Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in (1) The Impact of the First World War Deck (15):

When did the First World War end?



When was the new constitution drawn up?

August 1919


Describe the weaknesses/ flaws of the Weimar Constitution

. Challenge from the army - many army leaders wanted
the Kaiser to return (In order to maintain their status).
. Proportional Representation - This produced a large
number of parties which made it difficult to create
political stability.
. Who has more power, the parliament or the president? -
Article 48 allowed the president to rule by decree
without parliament.
. Challenge from civil service - many civil servants and
judges didn't agree with the constitution's liberal political


Describe the strengths of the Weimar Constitution

. The laws were very democratic - men and women had
the vote at the age of 20. (Better than Britain)
. A strong president was needed to take control over the
government and protect the people in a crisis.
. The head of Government (the chancellor) had to have the
support of most of the politicians in the Reichstag.


When was the Treaty of Versailles signed?

28th June 1919


Reactions to the Treaty of Versailles

Many Germans were disgraced by the Treaty and its terms. The constitution was blamed for this and the politicians who signed the Treaty became known as the November Criminals.


The Terms of the Treaty of Versailles

. Army not to exceed 100,000
. Reparations fixed at 6,600 million
. All colonies to be given to the Allied Powers.
. No union (Anschluss) with Austria.
. No submarines permitted.
. War Guilt Clause
. Germany not allowed in League of Nations.
. Millions of citizens absorbed into other countries.


Describe the events of the Spartacist Uprising

. January 1919, an attempt to overthrow the government.
. Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg were KPD
communists and were both killed.
. 16 spartacists were executed.
. More than 1000 people killed a month later in a further
communist uprising as a result of fighting.
. The league took its name form Spartacus, who led a
rebellion in 73BC.
. The Berlin Freikorps and regular army put down the


Describe the events of the Kapp Putsch

. In 1920, there was an unsuccessful right-wing uprising.
. It happened because Ebert and Weimar Government
wanted to reduce the size of the army.
. Some of the army rebelled and it was led by Kapp who
was to be chancellor of the new right-wing Government .
. Didn't have the support of most of the people and
therefore collapsed.


Who benefitted from the hyperinflation of the 1920s?

. Gustav Stresemann
. Business men who had borrowed from banks
. Farmers - serious food shortages led to a rise in prices.
. People who had dollars or pounds could exchange their
currencies for millions of marks.


Describe the French Occupation of the Ruhr

. 1921, because no reparations were paid, France sent
troops into the Ruhr.
. January 1923, further occupation by French and Belgian
troops took place.
. The Germans resisted. Many workers went on strikes
because of the invasion.
. Some workers were shot in the invasion.
. Many factories were set on fire and destroyed.


What were the results of the occupation?

. The invasion united the German people and made them
hate the French and Belgians even more.
. The government backed the strikers and printed them more money to pay their wage.
. The strike meant that even fewer goods were produced
in Germany.
. The extra strike money and the collapse in production
turned inflation into hyperinflation.


When did Gustav Stresemann become chancellor of the Weimar Constitution?

The summer of 1923


What did Stresemann do as soon as he became chancellor?

. Introduced a new currency to reduce hyperinflation.


What were the Freikorps?

. The Freikorps were paramilitary groups formed from
demobilsed soldiers at the end of the war.
. They refused to give up weapons and uniforms.
. The majority didn't support the Weimar Government and
there were about 200 groups across Germany.