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Flashcards in 5 Nephrology and Acid-Base Deck (36)
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kidney Stone sizes to know

<5mm IVF and analgesia
<7mm can use MET
>30mm surgery for sure

In between: depends, lithotripsy, uretoscopy, etc


-think what 3 extrarenal things

cysts in:

So, SAH, cirrhosis, pancreatitis


Renal cyst, big picture approach?

Ask yourself, is this RCC??

1. if cyst small, think simple, no tx
2. if cyst big with septations, think complex cyst, do needle bx
3. If classic triad, or paraneoplastic sxs (anemia or polycythemia), think RCC. Do CT. Then Cut it out, no bx


Predicted anion gap

Albumin x3. So, with alb 4, AG predicted is 12

Alb 2, predicted is 6.


metabolic alkalosis
-how to approach dx

1. volume responsive?
Measure Urine Cl. If low (<10), then contraction alk (high aldo retaining NaCl, so Cl low). Give fluids

If Urine Cl >10, not volume responsive.
-urine Cl>10 and HTN, then hyperaldosteronism (not responsive to fluids). eg RAS and Conn's syndrome

-urine Cl>10 and no HTN, then think genetic. Bartter and Gitelman


metabolic acidosis, non-AG.
-how to approach dx

Get urine anion gap.
(Urine Na + K - Cl). NOT SAME ELECTROLYTES as blood AG

If +, then RTA
If -, then diarrhea