Are antidepressants only given for depression?
eating disorders, anxiety, chronic pain as well
What is dysthymia?
Persistent low-grade depression
What are some examples of monoamine neurotransmitters?
5-HT / Serotonin (inhibitory)
What is 5-HT?
NA, 5-HT and dopamine are examples of ____ neurotransmitters.
Serotonin is widely distributed in the brain.
What are its functions
b) at the nucleus raphe magnus?
a) Mood, sleep, appetite, perception
What effects does NA produce in the brain specifically?
fight or flight in the brain
Which part of the brain releases NA in response to signals from the periaqueductal grey?
What general effect does this cause?
Which enzyme metabolises monoamine neurotransmitters to clear them out of the pre-synaptic terminal?
What happens if you inhibit monoamine oxidase?
Neurotransmitter isn't cleared up
It sticks around in the synapse for longer
What are two examples of monoamine oxidase inhibitors?
Which monoamine oxidase inhibitor is
What is a major side effect, involving diet, of monoamine oxidase inhibitors?
If you eat products containing lots of tyramine e.g cheese, gravy you'll have a hypertensive crisis
Why aren't monoamine oxidase inhibitors e.g phenelzine, moclobemide widely used?
What are some side effects of monoamine oxidase inhibitors?
Hypertensive crisis w/ high tyramine diet
How do tricyclic antidepressants work?
Block re-uptake of monoamine neurotransmitter into pre-synaptic terminal
What are some examples of tricyclic antidepressants?
What are some side effects of TCAs?
Anticholinergic effects - reduce smooth muscle activity; blurred vision (can't accomodate), dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention
Cardiovascular problems - tachycardia, postural hypotension, (fatal) arrhythmia
What are some anticholinergic effects of TCAs?
Dry mouth and eyes
Blurred vision (failure of accommodation)
What are some cardiovascular side effects of TCAs?
Arrhythmia (fatal in overdose)
bad for the heart in general
What can patients suffer if they overdose on TCAs?
How do SSRIs work?
Same action as TCAs, prevent reuptake of monoamine neurotransmitter into pre-synaptic terminal
but act selectively on 5-HT
SSRIs act selectively on ___.
What are some examples of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors?
What are some side effects of SSRIs?
N&V (opposite: anti-emetics which INHIBIT a type of 5-HT)
Headache (opposite: triptans which INHIBIT a type of 5-HT)
The nausea and headache typically caused by SSRIs is ___.
meaning it goes away after a while
Which symptoms are
receptors responsible for?
a) Headache (antagonists are the -triptans, for migraine)
b) Nausea (antagonists are -setrons, or anti-emetics)
SSRIs may initially ___ the symptoms of anxiety or depression.
especially in young people
In young people, what do SSRIs increase the risk of?
Thoughts of self-harm / suicide
Why shouldn't SSRIs be given to patients under 25?
Increase in thoughts of self-harm / suicidal ideation