What is dependence?
Strong desire to take a substance, with difficulty stopping, and persistent use despite evidence of harm
Developing a tolerance to a substance
Neglect of alternative hobbies
Going into a withdrawal state when going cold turkey
Does addiction/dependence only apply to substances?
gambling, adrenaline junkies, games, social media
What is incentive salience?
Process which attributes 'want' to a stimulus
i.e activates your reward pathway for doing something
Which three parts of the brain are involved in incentive salience and the reward pathway?
VTA (ventral tegmental area)
Which neurotransmitter is released from the ventral tegmental area and the nucleus accumbens in incentive salience?
What is the function of incentive salience?
'Reward' for behaviours which keep you alive / pass down your genes
so food, shelter, sex
___ drugs affect the reward pathway.
Addictive drugs e.g nicotine, alcohol and opiates cause the release of which neurotransmitter in the brain?
Which process do addictive drugs hijack by releasing dopamine in the brain?
Why do people who are addicted to certain drugs or behaviours begin to neglect other interests?
other activities can't compete with dopamine release
Dopamine receptors are downregulated in response to repeated exposure to an addictive drug.
What process is this an example of?
What is the only way to experience reward when you have tolerance to an addictive drug?
Take a higher dose of the drug
How long does tolerance take to wear off when you're abstinent from a drug?
What does this mean in the interim?
What does this predispose the patient to?
Significant period of time
Reward threshold is still raised, normal life seems boring by comparison
The feeling of reward experienced by initially taking a drug is an example of ___ reinforcement.
Feeling crap unless you take a drug is an example of ___ reinforcement.
Which part of the frontal lobe is responsible for executive function?
Which part of the brain regulates your decision making, memory and behaviour?
When does the pre-frontal cortex finish developing?
So emotions > executive function when you're younger
The younger you experiment with drugs, the (more / less) likely you are to be addicted to them.
What is the proper name for the reward pathway?
The brain makes associations between visual and audio ___ and addictive drugs.
Which parts of the brain are responsible for memory and learning?
Which parts of the brain are responsible for reward?
Ventral tegmental area
Which part of the brain regulates the signals coming from the reward pathway?
Which part of the brain is involved in motivation?
Which neurotransmitter is released in response to stress?
stress affect drug addiction?
a) Acute stress - dopamine release; cue to use drug
b) Chronic stress - chronic dopamine release; upregulation of dopamine receptors; threshold for reward increased; more likely to reach that by using drugs
i.e all bad