7: Neurobiology of addiction behaviours Flashcards Preview

Psychiatry Week 1 2018/19 > 7: Neurobiology of addiction behaviours > Flashcards

Flashcards in 7: Neurobiology of addiction behaviours Deck (27)
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1

What is dependence?

Strong desire to take a substance, with difficulty stopping, and persistent use despite evidence of harm

Developing a tolerance to a substance

Neglect of alternative hobbies

Going into a withdrawal state when going cold turkey

2

Does addiction/dependence only apply to substances?

No

gambling, adrenaline junkies, games, social media

3

What is incentive salience?

Process which attributes 'want' to a stimulus

i.e activates your reward pathway for doing something

4

Which three parts of the brain are involved in incentive salience and the reward pathway?

VTA (ventral tegmental area)

Nucleus accumbens

Pre-frontal cortex

5

Which neurotransmitter is released from the ventral tegmental area and the nucleus accumbens in incentive salience?

Dopamine

6

What is the function of incentive salience?

'Reward' for behaviours which keep you alive / pass down your genes

so food, shelter, sex

7

___ drugs affect the reward pathway.

Addictive

8

Addictive drugs e.g nicotine, alcohol and opiates cause the release of which neurotransmitter in the brain?

Dopamine

9

Which process do addictive drugs hijack by releasing dopamine in the brain?

Incentive salience

10

Why do people who are addicted to certain drugs or behaviours begin to neglect other interests?

Incentive salience

other activities can't compete with dopamine release

11

Dopamine receptors are downregulated in response to repeated exposure to an addictive drug.

What process is this an example of?

Tolerance

12

What is the only way to experience reward when you have tolerance to an addictive drug?

Take a higher dose of the drug

13

How long does tolerance take to wear off when you're abstinent from a drug?

What does this mean in the interim?

What does this predispose the patient to?

Significant period of time

Reward threshold is still raised, normal life seems boring by comparison

Relapse

14

The feeling of reward experienced by initially taking a drug is an example of ___ reinforcement.

positive reinforcement

15

Feeling crap unless you take a drug is an example of ___ reinforcement.

negative reinforcement

16

Which part of the frontal lobe is responsible for executive function?

Pre-frontal cortex

17

Which part of the brain regulates your decision making, memory and behaviour?

Frontal lobe

pre-frontal cortex

18

When does the pre-frontal cortex finish developing?

20s

So emotions > executive function when you're younger

19

The younger you experiment with drugs, the (more / less) likely you are to be addicted to them.

more likely

20

What is the proper name for the reward pathway?

Mesolimbic pathway

21

The brain makes associations between visual and audio ___ and addictive drugs.

cues

22

Which parts of the brain are responsible for memory and learning?

Hippocampus

Amygdala

23

Which parts of the brain are responsible for reward?

Ventral tegmental area

Nucleus accumbens

24

Which part of the brain regulates the signals coming from the reward pathway?

Pre-frontal cortex

25

Which part of the brain is involved in motivation?

Orbito-frontal cortex

26

Which neurotransmitter is released in response to stress?

Dopamine

27

How does

a) acute

b) chronic

stress affect drug addiction?

a) Acute stress - dopamine release; cue to use drug

b) Chronic stress - chronic dopamine release; upregulation of dopamine receptors; threshold for reward increased; more likely to reach that by using drugs

i.e all bad