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Flashcards in 54-Breakdown of Homeostasis Deck (66)
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1

What is homeostasis

normal steady state

2

What happens when cells encounter physiologic stress

They must adapt, get injured, or die

3

What is the most crucial event in evolution of disease

Cell death

4

What happens after prolonged or severe injury

Cell death-necrosis or apoptosis

5

What are the cellular adaptations to stress

Atrophy
Hypertrophy-physiologic or pathologic
Hyperplasia-physiologic or pathologic
metaplasia

6

What is atrophy

Shrinking of cell to preserve function and survive

7

What is hypertrophy

Cell enlarges, limited capacity to divide

8

What is hyperplasia

More cells are produced if they are capable of replication

9

What is metaplasia

Differentiation from one adult cell type to another

10

What happens to skeletal muscle when it loses its innervation

denervation-atrophy, become small and angular

11

What causes atrophy

Decreased workload
loss of innervation
Diminished blood supply
Inadequate nutrition
Loss of endocrine
aging

12

what is an example of pathologic hypertrophy

Hypertension and enlargement of heart
Muscular Dystrophy

13

What is an example of physiologic hypertrophy

Pregnancy from estrogen

14

What is an example of physiologic hyperplasia

Pregnancy and proliferation of breast tissue

15

What is the difference between hyperplasia and cancer

Hyperplasia is tightly controlled
Cancer has uncontrolled growth

16

What is an example of metaplasia

Chronic smokers
Change of epithelium in branches from columnar to squamous

Gain survival, but loss of protection like mucous secretion and cilia

17

Why does metaplasia occur

One cell type is sensitive to stress and is replaced by a type that can withstand the stress to try to survive

18

What causes cell injury

EVERYTHING
Intrinsic-genetic
Acquired-everything else

19

What does cell response to injurious stimuli depend on

Type, duration, severity

20

What are the consequences of injurious stimulus

Cell type, status, adaptability, genetic make up

21

Where are the sites of vulnerability for cell injury

Mitochondria, calcium, membrane, protein and DNA integrity

22

What are the morphologic changes from injury

Biochemical changes
They are time dependent

23

What does mitochondrial damage lead to

ATP depletion and increase ROS, necrosis and apoptosis

24

ATP depletion is due to what

Decreased oxygen, reduced nutrients, mitochondrial damage, toxins

25

If you have ATP depletion what can you test for

Lactic acidosis in serum blood test

26

Increase ROS leads to what

Damaged lipids, proteins, DNA

27

How does reduced ATP affect cells

Reduced ATP dependent sodium and calcium pumps, anaerobic glycolysis (lactic acid production and decreased pH), disruption of protein synthesis

28

How are ROS formed

Produced normally during redox reactions
Produced by phagocytic leukocytes (neutrophils and Macs) for destroying microbes

29

How does ROS contribute to disease

Cancer-mutation from free radicals
atherosclerosis-plaque formation
Aging-accumulative damage
Toxicology-acetaminophen toxicology
hypoxia

30

What are the sources of calcium

mitochondria, ER, extracellular space