51-Inflammation and Phagocytosis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 51-Inflammation and Phagocytosis Deck (56)
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1

what is the hallmark of the activation of the innate immune response

inflammation

2

how is inflammation activated

release of inflammatory mediators

3

what are the signs of inflammation

redness
heat
swelling
pain
loss of function

4

what are the functions of inflammation

recruit immune cell
enhance immune cell function
limit spread of infection
promote tissue repair

5

what are the steps of inflammation

1-tissue damage causes release of inflammatory molecules because sentinel cells and pattern recognition receptors recognize pathogens
2-vasodilation to increase blood flow to damaged area and increase immune cells
3-blood clots localize the infection, abscess forms
4-promote wound healing

6

what does vasodilation cause during inflammation?

redness, swelling, pain, loss of function

7

how does fever response help infection?

decrease viability of pathogen
increase immune cell function

8

what are the sentinel cells

macrophages and mast cells

9

what do sentinel cells do

recognize pathogens and release inflammatory molecules

10

what are the inflammatory molecules and what do they do?

cytokines, chemokines, lipid mediators
1-vasodilation of blood vessels
2-recruit immune cells
3-activate immune cells

11

where are mast cells found

epithelial and mucosal layers

12

where are macrophages found

everywhere in the body

13

what do cytokines released by sentinel cells do

TNF, IL-1, IL-6, IL-12, IFN-gamma
enhance immune cell function, regulate vascular permeability

14

what are the important cytokines released by sentinel cells

TNF, IL-1, IL-6

15

what do lipid mediators do

alter vascular permeability, vasodilation, contraction of smooth muscle

16

what does histamine do

increase vascular permeability, increase vasodilation, increase pain responses

17

how does recruitment infection work

1-TNF and IL-1 are released from mast and macrophages to alter blood vessel endothelium. decreased cell to cell contacts and increase permeability
2- E and P selectin on vessel bind selectin ligand on cell to slow it down and roll
3-chemokine on vessel bind chemokine ligand on cell to activate integrin
4-integrin on immune cell bind integrin ligand on vessel (iCAM-1) to stop the cell
5-cell moves across vessel to infection

18

How does TNF work systemically

stimulate adipose and muscle for stored energy (immune system requires lots of energy)

19

How does the liver promote immunity systemically

release acute phase reactants after IL-1 and IL-6 stimulate

20

what do acute phase reactants do?

immunity and wound healing

21

what is C reactive proteins

an acute phase reactant used as a clinical marker for inflammation

22

when is inflammation good?

localized

23

when is inflammation bad?

systemically

24

systemic inflammation can lead to what?

widespread vasodilation, low blood pressure, edema, collapse of blood vessels and organ failure and death

25

high fever can lead to what

respiratory and CV disease, fatal

26

what is the positive control feedback for inflammation

TNF and IL-1

27

what are the negative feedback for inflammation

IL-1Ra to inhibit IL-1
soluble TNF receptors
immune suppressants cytokines TGF-B and IL-10

28

what is DIRA and symptoms

lack of IL-1Ra, skin pustules, widening and lesions of bones

29

treatment for DIRA

anakinra- recombinant IL-1Ra

30

what is phaocytosis

ingestion and killing of microbial pathogens