57-Acute and Chronic Inflammation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 57-Acute and Chronic Inflammation Deck (66)
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1

What is inflammation

Localized response to infection and injury

Designed to be protective but can cause tissue damage

2

What are the goals of inflammation

Eliminate cause of injury, necrotic cells and tissue, repair wound

3

What are the signs of inflammation and what causes it

Warm
Red
Pain
Swelling

Vascular changes and leukocyte recruitment

4

What are the sequence of events in inflammatory reaction

macrophages recognize microbes
Trigger vascular and cellular reactions
Bring defense cells to site of infection

5

What are the leukocytes used in inflammation

monocyte
Neutrophils
lymphocyte

6

What do T and B lymphocytes do

antigen specific immune and inflammatory response

7

What do neutrophils do

Kill bacteria, remove dead cells, part of innate immune system and acute inflammatory

8

What do macrophages do

Phagocytic, chronic and acute inflammation

9

What does inflammatory response depend on

Type and intensity of injury

10

Examples of harmful inflammation

Epiglottis-airway obstruction
Meningitis-swelling
Arthritis-joint destruction

11

Acute inflammation
Onset
Cell infiltrate
Tissue injury
Local and systemic signs

Fast, minutes to hours
Neutrophils
Usually mild
Prominent

12

Chronic inflammation
Onset
Cell infiltrate
Tissue injury
Local and systemic signs

Slow, days
Macrophages
Severe and progressive
Less prominent

13

Characteristics of acute inflammation

Vascular changes and edema
rapid
Neutrophils
Innate immune system
NOT ANTIGEN SPECIFIC

14

Functions of acute inflammation

phagocytose and kill bacteria
Remove necrotic tissue
Begin tissue repair process

15

Sequence of events in acute inflammation

Increased blood flows (congestion)
Increased vascular permeability
extravastion and deposit fluid and proteins
Emigration of neutrophils

16

What are the 2 main vascular reactions for acute inflammation

Vasodilator and increased vascular permeability

17

What is congestion

Vascular expansion, increased blood flow
Causes redness and warmth

18

how is exudate formed

Increased vascular permeability
Movement of protein rich fluid out of vessel
Causes increased osmotic pressure of interstitial fluid so more water moves into tissues

19

How is transudate formed

Increased hydrostatic pressure from reduced venous return

20

What is edema

Fluid accumulation in tissue/extravascular

21

What are exudates

High protein, high specific gravity, inflammatory

22

What are transudates

Low protein, low specific gravity, non inflammatory

23

Edema from increased pressure

Transudate, low protein, from congestive heart failure

24

Consequences of edema

Depends on location
Leg-little effect
Larynx-asphyxia
Brain-herniation
Lung-hypoxia

25

Types of exudates

Serous
fibrinous
sanguineous
purulent

26

What is serous exudate

Fluid with no inflammatory cells
Skin blister between epidermis and dermis

27

What is fibrinous exudate

Fibrin
Inflammation of lining of body cavities, vascular dilation and congestion

28

What is sanguineous exudate

bloody

29

What is prudent exudate

Pus, contains neutrophils

30

What causes serous exudate

From burns or inflammatory skin disease