57-Acute and Chronic Inflammation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 57-Acute and Chronic Inflammation Deck (66)
1

What is inflammation

Localized response to infection and injury

Designed to be protective but can cause tissue damage

2

What are the goals of inflammation

Eliminate cause of injury, necrotic cells and tissue, repair wound

3

What are the signs of inflammation and what causes it

Warm
Red
Pain
Swelling

Vascular changes and leukocyte recruitment

4

What are the sequence of events in inflammatory reaction

macrophages recognize microbes
Trigger vascular and cellular reactions
Bring defense cells to site of infection

5

What are the leukocytes used in inflammation

monocyte
Neutrophils
lymphocyte

6

What do T and B lymphocytes do

antigen specific immune and inflammatory response

7

What do neutrophils do

Kill bacteria, remove dead cells, part of innate immune system and acute inflammatory

8

What do macrophages do

Phagocytic, chronic and acute inflammation

9

What does inflammatory response depend on

Type and intensity of injury

10

Examples of harmful inflammation

Epiglottis-airway obstruction
Meningitis-swelling
Arthritis-joint destruction

11

Acute inflammation
Onset
Cell infiltrate
Tissue injury
Local and systemic signs

Fast, minutes to hours
Neutrophils
Usually mild
Prominent

12

Chronic inflammation
Onset
Cell infiltrate
Tissue injury
Local and systemic signs

Slow, days
Macrophages
Severe and progressive
Less prominent

13

Characteristics of acute inflammation

Vascular changes and edema
rapid
Neutrophils
Innate immune system
NOT ANTIGEN SPECIFIC

14

Functions of acute inflammation

phagocytose and kill bacteria
Remove necrotic tissue
Begin tissue repair process

15

Sequence of events in acute inflammation

Increased blood flows (congestion)
Increased vascular permeability
extravastion and deposit fluid and proteins
Emigration of neutrophils

16

What are the 2 main vascular reactions for acute inflammation

Vasodilator and increased vascular permeability

17

What is congestion

Vascular expansion, increased blood flow
Causes redness and warmth

18

how is exudate formed

Increased vascular permeability
Movement of protein rich fluid out of vessel
Causes increased osmotic pressure of interstitial fluid so more water moves into tissues

19

How is transudate formed

Increased hydrostatic pressure from reduced venous return

20

What is edema

Fluid accumulation in tissue/extravascular

21

What are exudates

High protein, high specific gravity, inflammatory

22

What are transudates

Low protein, low specific gravity, non inflammatory

23

Edema from increased pressure

Transudate, low protein, from congestive heart failure

24

Consequences of edema

Depends on location
Leg-little effect
Larynx-asphyxia
Brain-herniation
Lung-hypoxia

25

Types of exudates

Serous
fibrinous
sanguineous
purulent

26

What is serous exudate

Fluid with no inflammatory cells
Skin blister between epidermis and dermis

27

What is fibrinous exudate

Fibrin
Inflammation of lining of body cavities, vascular dilation and congestion

28

What is sanguineous exudate

bloody

29

What is prudent exudate

Pus, contains neutrophils

30

What causes serous exudate

From burns or inflammatory skin disease

31

What causes fibrinous exudate

Greater vascular permeability, fibrinogen leaks out

32

What is the sequence of events in acute inflammation

Increased blood flow
Increased vascular permeability
extravasation of transudate and educate
Emigration of neutrophils

33

Leukocyte traffic requires what

adhesion

34

What are the 2 types of adhesion

Loose rolling and firm adhesion

35

What causes loose rolling

Selectins

36

What causes firm adhesion

integrins

37

What do chemokines do during migration of leukocytes

Increase integrin affinity and promote directional migration

38

What do cytokines do during migration of leukocytes

(TNF, IL-1) Promote expression of selections and integrin

39

What is chemotaxis

Locomotion along chemical gradient

40

Cell derived mediators of inflammation are formed where

Preformed in cell or produced at site of inflammation

41

Plasma derived mediators of inflammation are formed where

Derived from circulating inactive precursors and activated at the site of inflammation

42

Major cytokines for acute inflammation

TNF, IL-1, IL-6, chemokines

43

Major cytokines for chronic inflammation are

INF gamma, IL4, IL5, IL12

44

Principle role of TNF and IL1

Endothelial activation

45

Where are TNF and IL1 produced

Activated macrophages

46

What happens when leukocytes enter tissues

lipoxygenase AA products are changed from leukotrienes to lipoxins

47

What are lipoxins

anti inflammatory mediators

48

When are neutrophils seen in inflammation

Acute, first 6-24 hours
Respond rapidly, short lived

49

When are monocytes seen in inflammation

24-48 hours

50

What is margination

leukocyte accumulation at periphery of vessels, early acute inflammation

51

What is the goal of acute inflammation

phagocytose and destroy organisms, remove necrotic tissue

52

What can cause tissue damage during an acute inflammation

Proteolysis enzymes, ROS

A COMMON CAUSE OF DISEASE!!

53

What are the outcomes of acute inflammation

Resolution, healing by scarring, chronic inflammation

54

What characterizes a chronic inflammation

macrophages, lymphocytes

55

What is chronic inflammation

Prolonged duration
Continuing active inflammation
Tissue injury
Attempts at healing
An immune response

56

What causes a chronic inflammation

Progression of acute inflammation
Persistence of injurious agent
Interference with normal healing

57

What is the maturation of a macrophage

Bone marrow-stem cell/monoblast
Blood-monocyte
Tissue-macrophage

58

What is the classically activated pathway for macrophages

proinflammatory induced by microbes and cytokines (IFN gamma)

59

What is the alternatively activated pathway for macrophages

anti inflammatory induced by IL13 and IL4

60

How do macrophages and lymphocytes interact

Stimulate each other
Release inflammatory mediator that affect each other

61

b cells do what

Develop into Plasma cells that secrete antibodies

62

t cells do what

secrete cytokines to promote inflammation

63

What is a distinctive pattern of chronic inflammation

granulomatous inflammation

64

what is a granuloma

Aggregates of epithelioid macrophages
An attempt to wall off the offending agent
Long lasting and highly destructive

65

What is an example of cascading granuloma

TB

66

What does a persistent inflammation cause

Tissue damage, scar formation, immune response

Autoimmune diseases like thyroiditis (hypothyroidism)