47-Overview of Immunology Flashcards Preview

Immunology > 47-Overview of Immunology > Flashcards

Flashcards in 47-Overview of Immunology Deck (47)
1

What is immunology?

The study of the response of an organism to microbes and allergens

2

Why is immunology important for clinical biology?

T cells are involved in most major pathological disorders

3

When was the initial description of immunity

5000 BCE in China

4

What did Thucydides do?

In 430 BCE first used the word immunity to describe individuals that survived the plague did not get sick again "immunological memory"

5

When was the 1st purposeful injection?

1000 in China "variolation". Blew smallpox pus into noses. Variolation 2% death rate. small pox 35% death rate

6

What did Edward Jenner do?

Observed that milk maids didn't get smallpox because they were exposed to cowpox. Infected the gardener's son with cow pox and then small pox "vaccination"

7

What did Robert Koch do?

In 1876 proved the germ theory with the causative agent for anthrax

8

What did Louis Pasteur do?

1880's developed live attenuated vaccines for chicken cholera, anthrax, and rabies

9

When was the germ theory developed?

1840

10

What did Elie Metchnikoff do?

In 1883 discovered phagocytic white blood cell ingesting pathogens "macrophages"

11

What did Emil von Behring do?

In 1890 identified serum of animals immune to diphtheria had antibodies

12

What did Shibasaburo Kitasato do?

In 1890 identified serum of animals immune to diphtheria had antibodies

13

What did Emile Roux do?

Worked with Behring and Kitasato to develop first anti-serum treatment for diphtheria

14

What is a pathogen?

Organism with ability to cause host damage

15

How does the immune system differentiate between pathogen and non pathogen?

It can't. it just responds to microbes

16

Pathogenicity of microbe is defined by what?

The microbe and the immune response

17

Infection and disease are....?

Related, but distinct. You can get infected without getting a disease

18

What are the different types of pathogens?

Virus, Bacteria, Parasite, Worm

19

The immune system can respond to what external substances?

Allergens

20

What are the 3 main lines of defense against a pathogen?

Barriers, Innate response, Adaptive response

21

What are examples of barriers?

physical, chemical, microbiome

22

What are the types of innate response?

phagocytosis, granulocytes, inflammation, proteins

23

What are the types of adaptive response?

T cells, B cells/antibodies

24

How does a barrier fail?

wounds, defective membrane, chronic disease, malnutrition, insect bites, pathogenicity

25

What happens when a barrier fails?

Innate response starts

26

How long does it take for the innate response to start?

Minutes to hours

27

What is the response initiator for innate response?

broad classes of molecules

28

How long does it take for the adaptive response to start?

days to weeks

29

what is the response initiator for adaptive response?

specific antigen

30

What is the timing of an immune response?

Barrier is breaches, rapid activation of innate response then adaptive immune response is activated to clear pathogen. Adaptive immune cells develop into memory cells

31

What is required for the immune response?

both the innate and adaptive immunity

32

innate immune response is activated by what?

pattern recognition receptors

33

pattern recognition receptors are activated by what?

conserved features of pathogens (cell wall, nucleic acids, bacterial flagellin) essential for viability

34

examples of pattern recognition receptors:

TLR, NLR, RIG-I

35

What is inflammation?

hallmark of the activation of the innate immune response

36

how is inflammation activated?

release of inflammatory mediators

37

what are the five signs of inflammation?

redness (rubor)
heat (calor)
swelling (tumor)
pain (dolor)
loss of function

38

what are the 4 functions of inflammation?

recruit immune cells
enhance immune cell function
limit spread of infection
promote tissue repair

39

What are the steps of phagocytosis?

chemotaxis (movement to site of infection)
ingestion of pathogen into phagosome
formation of phagolysosome by fusing to lysosome
digestion of pathogen
release of debris that is highly inflammatory

40

where does t cell activation occur?

secondary lymphoid tissues
1-lymph nodes: antigens from tissues via lymph system
2-spleen: antigens from bloodstream via circulatory
3-Mucosa associated lymphoid tissues: antigens from mucosal surfaces

41

What is the role of the secondary lymphoid organs

localize antigen specific T and B cells with their antigen

42

How is the adaptive immune response activated?

antigen receptors on the surface of B and T cells

43

What does the T cell receptor associate with?

MHC molecules bound to specific antigen

44

What does the B cell receptor associate with?

free antigens

45

What is the hallmark of adaptive immune response?

Clonal Expansion

46

What is Clonal expansion?

recognition of antigen by BCR or TCR results in proliferation of the cell to increase numbers and fight infection

47

Explain how memory t and plasma cells respond to reinfection

1st encounter: expansion of specific T cells followed by contraction. remaining T cells differentiate into memory T cells. memory B cells and plasma cells also form
2nd encounter: Protective immunity, rapid expansion of t cells and enhanced antibody production before disease
infection years later: Immunological memory, expansion of t and b cells and increased antibody production before full blown disease occurs