Different main temperament types, their percentages, and descriptions?
Elements of temperament tend to cluster/group over time
- Easy (40%): positive mood, easy-going, predictable
- Difficult (10%): active, irritable, irregular, slow to adapt, resistant/reactive to change
- Slow to warm up (15%): inactive, moody, respond to novelty poorly [intermediate to easy and difficult]
Biological contributions to temperament?
- Identical twins > fraternal twins
- Variability in temperament even when parenting practices are accounted for
Neurological contributions to temperament?
- ^ R cerebral hemisphere activity in infants distressed by novelty
- ^ R frontal lobe activation (vs. L) in kids with inhibited style
- High reactive (i.e. inhibited) 5 & 7 year olds had ^ sympathetic reactivity than low-reactive when stressed
- 4 mo olds who responded to stimuli with robust motor activity, muscle tension, and frequently crying (also had low threshold of excitability in amygdala) were more likely to be inhibited at age 2
Cultural differences in regards to temperament?
Culture sets diff contexts by which particular temperaments are tolerated
- e.g. more reserved kids in China are perceived as more socially mature by teachers and more populate with peers (opposite of the US)
The "slow-to-warm-up" temperament tend to develop what?
The "difficult" temperament tend to develop what?
- 70% developed a behavior disorder by age 9
- 30% who functioned well were provide with opportunities to settle and adapt in their own time, were not put down for negative mood (even when intensely expressed)
So temperament doesn't just depend on biology, what else determines it?
"Goodness of fit" (another Thomas and Chess idea)
- Development is optimized when parents' parenting practices are sensitively adapted to the child's characteristics
Temperament vs. Personality (basic defs)
- Temperament = biological in nature, appears early in life
- Personality = broader realm of individual characteristics that develop over time with experience
What factor plus temperament results in personality?
Temperament + Experience = Personality
Fund of knowledge: 5-6 yo?
- Recite alphabet
- Count > 20
- Writes first and last name
- Recognizes printed letters and numbers
Piaget's cognitive development stages?
- Sensorimotor (infancy, 0-2)
- Peoperational (preschool - early elementary, 2-7)
- Concrete operations (middle - late elementary, 7-11)
- Formal operations (adolescence - adulthood, 11+)
Characteristics/goals of the pre-operational stage (2-7 yrs)?
- Mastered object permanence (typ by 18 mo)
- Ability to understand symbols (waving = "bye")
Characteristics of pre-operational development stage (2-7)?
- Appearance as reality
- Difficulty with the concept of reversibility
(juice glass levels, no. of quarters, cracker division)
What is appearance as reality?
Object's appearance conveys what the object is really like
What is causality?
If 2 events are correlated, one must have caused the other
What is centration?
Narrowly focused type of thought; looking at only one detail when multiple exist
- e.g. how much is in glass determined only on height (not also width/volume)----this experiment also exhibits the concept of reversability
- e.g. number of quarters based on length of row
What is reversibility?
Cannot think back to how an object was prior to change (cannot mentally undo an action)
- e.g. volume level in glass- thought changed even though watched juice being poured
- e.g. can think about ice melting, but not water freezing
Concrete operation characteristics (7-11 yrs)?
- Masters conservation/de-centration concepts (can simultaneously focus on multiple aspects of an object at the same time)
- Relational logic (e.g. line up by height, age...)
What is conservation/de-centration?
Can simultaneously focus on multiple aspects of an object at the same time
What is relational logic?
Can mentally arrange items along a quantifiable dimension (such as arrange people in order of height)
What is transitivity?
Necessary relations among elements in a series
( if A>B and B>C then A>C)
Fund of knowledge (10-11 yrs)?
- Reads aloud and to self with comprehension
- Double digit addition and subtraction in head; multiplies, divides and does fractions on paper
- Historical figures, geography, body systems (gaining much knowledge during this time period)
Formal operation characteristics (11+ years)?
- Hypothetico-deductive reasoning
- Inductive reasoning
- Ability to think about thinking, and to think abstractly
What is hypothetico-deductive reasoning?
- Ability to think hypothetically e.g. algebra
(if 3x = 12, what does x equal?)
What is inductive reasoning?
A scientific reasoning where hypotheses are generated and then systematically tested in experiments- beginnings of the scientific method
Does everyone reach formal operations?
- Cross-cultural research suggests necessity of schooling/emphasis on logic, math, science
- Piaget noted late in his career that many do so only on areas of interest of importance to them
How do kids learn (2 different theories)?
- Piaget's theory
- Vygotsky's theory
Piaget's Theory of Learning (elements)?
What are schemas (Piaget's Theory)?
- Schemas: generating maps/organizational methods (e.g. seeing a class, and chairs, place of learning)
What is equilibrium (Piaget's Theory)?
- Equilibrium: harmony between one's schemes and one's experience. (Toddler who has never seen anything fly but birds thinks that all flying objects are "birdies")
What is assimilation (Piaget's Theory)?
- Assimilation: tries to adapt a new experience by interpreting it in terms of existing schemes (Seeing an airplane in the sky prompts child to call the flying object a birdie)
Fit practice to theory: this is complex, but familiar objects are simplified to fit pre-existent categories in your head
Fit theory to practice: you have to change the ideas in your head to fit the reality of external objects
What is accommodation (Piaget's Theory)?
- Accommodation: modifies existing schemes to better account for puzzling new experience
(Toddler who experiences conflict/disequilibrium upon noticing that the new birdies has no feathers and doesn't flap it wings. Concludes not a bird and invents a new name or asks for it)
What is organization (Piaget's Theory)?
- Organization: rearranges existing schemes into new and more complex structures; forms hierarchical scheme consisting of a superordinate class (flying objects) and two subordinate classes (birdies and airplanes).
The goal of organization is to promote accommodation
What did Vygotsky base his theory of learning on?
Sociocultural theory of learning (Russian psychologist)
What was Vygotsky's theory of learning basics?
- Society provides tools of intellectual adaptation
- Learning occurs through dialogues with a skillful tutor
- Dialogues occur within the zone of proximal development
- Learning works best by scaffolding (contingent responses- hinting)
Implications of the different theories of learning for education?
- Piaget: independent, discovery-based activities
- Vygotsky: guided participation that is tailored to child's current activities; cooperative learning exercises where students assist each other (think Montossori)
Motor development (10-22 years)?
- Balance is good and can walk in tandem
- Accurate distinction between right and left
- Can elaborate with movements
- Can copy diamond
- Can copy an asterisk
- Can copy a 5-pointed star
- Cube can be drawn after prior exposure
Gender differences in motor skills?
Girls > Boys
- Fine motor skills (dexterity)
- Gross motor skills (flexibility and balance)
Boys > Girls
- Gross motor skills (strength)
Physical fitness recommendations?
(US Department of Health and Human Services- 2008)
- 60 min of physical activity daily
- Muscle strength (3x/week)
- Bone strength (3x/week)
How much exercise do kids actually get?
Elementary school children > adolescents
- Grades 1-3 (3 hours daily)
- Grades 4-6 (2 hours daily)
Also depends on:
- Parental encouragement
- Parental activity
Developmentally focused youth sports programs for 3rd-8th grade girls (girls on the run/on track) found what?
- More physical activity
- More self esteem
- More body satisfaction
- Also positive findings towards feelings of physical competence, body image, and presence of desirable "masculine" attributes (like assertiveness)
Positives and negatives of athletics?
- Improved motor skills
- Self esteem
- Social skills (complementary roles)
- Cognitive skills (strategies, modified rules)
- Delinquent and antisocial behavior (but mostly good, tempered by adults involved)
Sleep recommendations by age?
Newborns: 16-18 hours a day
Preschool-aged: 11-12 hours a day
School-aged: at least 10 hours a day
Teens: 9-10 hours a day
Adults (incl elderly): 7-8 hours a day
Erickson's psychosocial stage for preschool age?
Initiative vs. Guilt
- Initiate projects or actions. If encouraged without being burdened by being "wrong" or "stupid", will develop a feeling of initiative
- Parents must juggle allowing a child space and encouragement while keeping them from dangerous situations
Erickson's psychosocial stage for school age?
Industry vs. inferiority
- Developing skills and sense of purposeful activity. Failures (academic or if child is still denied opportunity to discover) results in feeling useless and inferior; audition for being productive in work life later
- This stage is like a rehearsal for being productive and valued at work later in life
What is self-esteem?
Kids with self esteem recognize their strengths and weaknesses but are positive about themselves overall:
- Scholastic competence
- Social acceptance
- Physical appearance
- Athletic competence
- Behavioral conduct
Self esteem in 4-7 years?
- Self ratings are modestly correlated with teacher ratings
- Researchers think higher ratings are related to a desire to be like or good at activities rather than solid sense of self worth
Self esteem in 8 year olds?
- Self ratings are similar to teachers in all categories EXCEPT behavioral conduct
Self esteem in adolescence?
- By adolescence, girls with higher self esteem are those with more supportive relationships with friends
- Boys with higher self esteem feel able to influence friends
- Girls (more than boys) experience a dip in self-esteem in junior high (multiple stressors)
Influences on self esteem?
- Secure attachment
- Authoritative parenting style (positive acceptance/responsiveness, nurturing, warmth)
- 4-5 yrs: start of self-comparison, which increases with age
- Less in communally reared children (Kibbutz)- more about cooperation and teamwork
What did Harlow find with monkeys in regard to peer influences?
Peers contribute as much/more to a child's development as parents:
- Mother only: avoidance or aggression
- Peer only: strong reciprocal attachments, with non-peer monkeys were aggressive
Basis of peer relationships by age?
- 3-6 yo: any positive interaction = "friend" (e.g. like same toys)
- 6-8 yo: basis for friendship is shared activities (usually one's own interests)
- 8-10 yo: friends are psychologically similar based on reciprocal relationships; mutual liking
- adolescents: reciprocal emotional commitments; trust is a higher priority
Importance of peer relationships?
- Friends provide security and support
- At least one friend can reduce loneliness of unpopular children
- Friends contribute to social problem-solving skills
- Popular: liked by many, dislike by few
- Neglected: seem invisible to peers *
- Rejected: disliked by many, like by few **
- Controversial: liked by many, disliked by many
- Average: liked (or disliked) by moderate number
* Neglected kids are more likely to attain improved status if they enter a new setting
** Rejected kids feel the most left out and run the greatest risk of displaying deviant, antisocial behavior and other serious mental health problems later in life
Characteristics of popular peers?
Outgoing, friendly, cooperative, good social-cognitive skills
Characteristics of neglected peers?
More shy and quiet, fewer attempts to enter social group, behavior seems to originate from their own anxiety rather than active ostracism
Characteristics of rejected peers?
- Aggressive- more aggressive, disrupted, critical, low levels of pro-social behavior, overestimate their social standing
- Withdrawn- behaviorally awkward, immature, insensitive to peer group expectations, feel lonely
Other topics helpful for this age group:
- Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (next week)
- Bullying (next week)
- ADHD demonstration lectures (last week)
- Autism spectrum disorders and developmental disorders (last week)