6/10- Neuroscience of Adolescence Flashcards Preview

Term 5: Behavioral Science > 6/10- Neuroscience of Adolescence > Flashcards

Flashcards in 6/10- Neuroscience of Adolescence Deck (34):

Common disorders seen to arise in adolescence? Estimated age ranges?

- Impulse control disorders (early; 5-15)

- Anxiety disorders (early; 5-20)

- Substance use disorders (12-25)

- Schizophrenia (12-23)

- Mood disorders (relatively long; 15-37)


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Adolescent ___ is associated with adult ___? Examples?

Adolescent problem behavior is associated with adult psychopathology

Early problem behavior:

- Tobacco use

- Alcohol use

- Drug use

- Trouble with police

- Sexual intercourse

Externalizing disorders:

- Antisocial personality disorder

- Drug abuse/dependency

- Alcohol abuse/dependence

- Nicotine dependence

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What are the primitive regions of the brain (divisions)?

- Rhomboencephalon

- Mesencephalon

- Diencephalon

- Telencephalon

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What neuronal mechanisms influence formation and maintenance of connections?

- Migration (neural movement)

- Aborization (extension of dendritic arms of the cells)

- Pruning (neuronal loss)

- Myelination ("insulation" of the axons)


Timeline and result of disruption: migration?

- Occurs prenatally

- Disruptions during 2nd TM implicated in schizophrenia and other disorders


Timeline and result of disruption: pruning?

- Increases at ~ age 2

- Brian processing becomes faster as superfluous connections are trimmed


Timeline and result of disruption: myelination?

- Different areas of the brain complete myelination at different ages

- Cortical association areas finish myelinating later so complex reasoning less in childhood

- Frontal lobes finish myelinating later, influencing attention, decision making, impulse control


T/F: There are different patterns of white matter maturation during adolescence?

Measured by what?


- Relative white matter volume

- Centered MT ratio

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T/F: Grey matter consistently increases during neuronal maturity

False; there are increases and decreases

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What disease specific patterns may be seen in brain development (by brain volume and grey matter volume)


- COS: childhood-onset schizophrenia (progressive and region-specific loss of cortical gray matter)


Common genetic variants influence what structures? How/what influences?

Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures; this paper shows single genetic variant that can influence size and shape of putamen

- Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance, and vesicle transport

- Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction


T/F: The propensity to use drugs is a uniquely human phenomenon?

False (also seen in bees, birds, cats.....)

- Best animal model = self-administration


What are most common drugs of initiation?

- Marijuana (70%)

- Pain relievers (13%)

- Inhalants (6%)

- Tranquilizers (5%)

- Stimulants (3%)

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What population groups are using the most (percentage using during the past month)?

- Mostly 18-20 yo (23%)

- 21-25 yo (20%) 

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T/F: Past month tobacco use is decreasing



What percent of the population in the most likely age groups exhibit current, binge, and heavy alcohol use?

- Almost 70% of 21-30 yo

- Still in the 50's% throughout 40s and 50s

- 42% in > 65 yo

No inverted view!

(as in illicit drug use) 

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T/F: Marijuana use is increasing


- 6% of the population uses > 300 days/yr

- 8% of the population uses 20+ days in past month 

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How does nicotine exposure in adolescence change the brain?

Changes dendritic arborization process

- Changes in patterns of synaptic activity

- Can sculpt late brain development

- Consequent effects on synaptic interconnection patterns and behavior regulation


How does marijuana exposure in adolescence change the brain?

- Heavy marijuana use during adolescence and into young adulthood may be associated with altered neural tissue development and interference with neuromaturation that may have neurobehavioral consequences

- See increased cortical thickness with increased lifetime marijuana use

- Actually see differences in baseline (for people using alcohol and marijuana versus control)

- Some marijuana use does not give rise to these changes, but high and sustained use does


T/F: addiction is a failure of resolve/a lack of willpower

False; addiction is a brain disease!


In what ways is addiction a brain disease?

- Different drugs of abuse target distinct brain networks and nuclei

- Drugs of abuse alter neuronal networks and brain nuclei

- Drugs of abuse alter 2nd messengers, transcriptional elements, and eventually DNA synthesis

- Brain changes caused by genetics (i.e. differential expression of proteins) and the environment (e.g. stress) alter an individual's response to drugs of abuse


Levels of what (NT-related things) predict reinforcing properties?

Dopamine (D2) receptor levels predict reinforcing properties

- Participants who liked the effects of methylphenidate had significantly lower levels of D2R

Dopamine transporter genotype predicts reinforcing effects of amphetamine

- There is decreased dopamine transporter in meth abusers (in caudate and putamen)

- 9/9 genotype doesn't feel amphetamine effect as much (9/10 intermediate and 10/10 experience great effect and are most susceptible to abuse)


How does the environment effect neuroscience/development: enriched environment?


- Neurons and synaptic connections

- Blood capillaries

- Mitochondrial activation



How does the environment effect neuroscience/development: sight of mother's face?

Sight of mother's face stimulates endogenous opiates and the production of CRF in infant's hypothalamus

- Activating sympathetic nervous system

- CRF also stimulates production of dopamine


How does the environment effect neuroscience/development: prolonged stress?

Prolonged stress results in neuron loss, especially in hippocampus


How does the environment effect neuroscience/development: abuse, neglect, under-stimulation and prolonged shame?

- Decrease level of endorphins, CRF, and dopamine

- Increase stress hormones and noradrenaline


Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) increase risk of what?

- Depression (~4x)

- Alcoholism (~4x)

- Illicit drug use (~3x)


___ increases the likelihood of depression, but ___ plays an important role

Stress increases the likelihood of depression, but genetics plays an important role

- Function of genotype for serotonin transporter (ss are 2-4x more likely to develop major depression)


Leading causes of death (2010)

- Heart disease

- Cancer

- Respiratory diseases

- Stroke

- Accidents

- Alzheimer's

- Diabetes

- Nephritis

- Influenza

- Suicide

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Link between depression and suicide:

__% are depressed at time of suicide

__% lifetime risk of suicide with untreated major depressive disorder

__% lifetime risk of suicide with treated major depressive disorder

Link between depression and suicide:

67% are depressed at time of suicide (probably more that just didn't see doctor)

20% lifetime risk of suicide with untreated major depressive disorder

0.14% lifetime risk of suicide with treated major depressive disorder!


What subcortical structures are responsible for processing social/affective information?

- Amygdala

- Hippocampus


Responsibilities of amygdala?

Can be the thing that triggers/sucks you back in; so powerful

- Key in sending and receiving mechanisms for facial expressions, hearing and touch

- Key component in neural networks associated with experiences of fear, attachment, early memory, emotion throughout life-span;

- Rapid appraisal of threat

- Initiates fight/flight response

- Retains early learning and unconsciously integrates it into present experience;

- Damage causes deficits in visual memory and auditory recognition of fear and anger

- Damage results in reduced social judgment

- Critical component of emotional memory


Responsibilities of hippocampus?

(Atrophy of hippocampus tied to depression)

- Vulnerable to sustained stress mediated via glucocorticoids with resultant dendritic degeneration and cell-death

- Hipppocampal volume decreases with chronic stress

- Critical for encoding and storage of explicit memory for spatial, semantic, and temporal information

- Necessary for new episodic and autobiographical learning

- Damage leads to anterograde amnesia;

- Biological effect of secure attachment protects hippocampus from stress mediated via glucocorticoids

- Especially vulnerable to insults of stress or anoxia;

- Adult women of childhood abuse have decreased left hippocampal volume and increased dissociative symptoms


What results from damage to anterior cingulate gyrus?

- Decreased empathy

- Emotional instability

- Disruption of HPA and ANS functioning

- Increased responsiveness to stress

- Decreased expressiveness

- Reduced motivation to communicate

- Mutism

- Inappropriate social behavior

- Impulsiveness