6/1- Language Development Flashcards Preview

Term 5: Behavioral Science > 6/1- Language Development > Flashcards

Flashcards in 6/1- Language Development Deck (61):
1

Communication (def)?

Communication- sending and receiving information; requires active participation in sender and receiver.

- There are several ways by which we communicate (nonverbal, verbal, graphic)

2

Language (def)?

Language- arbitrary symbol system used to communicate thoughts and ideas

3

Examples of nonverbal communication?

- Social smile

- Eye gaze of infant

- Gesture

- Facial expressions

- Sign language (used by hearing impaired)

4

Components of verbal/oral/speech?

- Articulation

- Voice

- Fluency

- Language

5

What is articulation?

Production of speech sounds; interaction/motor movements of lips, tongue, hard and soft palate, teeth

6

What is voice?

Production of voice quality, pitch, volume, resonance

7

What is fluency?

Flow or smoothness of speech production

8

What is language?

Two divisions?

Rule-governed, generative

Two divisions/components:

- Receptive: input/understanding

- Expressive: output/speaking

9

Need to consider what within each component of language?

Content (semantics):

- Word meaning

- Vocab (dual definitions, variations, metaphorical meanings, and shades of meaning) Forms

- Syntactic (grammar of language; word arrgmt/order- makes a HUGE difference in meaning!)

- Morphologic (structure of word forms; rules that govern changes in word meaning- book vs. books)

Use/pragmatics

- ex) knowing how inflection/tone of voice indicates emotion

- ex) alternating turns in conversation

- ex) differentiating manner of talking/behaving with diff people

- ex) making eye contact

10

Examples of graphic/written language?

- Drawing

- Reading

- Writing (written language disorders are cognitive disorders; continuum of language, but also developmental)

11

Development of speech and language requires interaction between what?

Doesn't require anything sophisticated or special!

Normal language development is interaction between intact mechanism (innate things) and favorable environment (partially learned); reciprocity

Intact mechanism

- Hearing sensitivity

- Motor skills

- Structural integrity

- Perception

- Intelligence

- Memory

- Attention

- Emotional status

- Ability to relate/interact

- General health

Favorable environment

- Stimulation/exposure

- Reinforcement

- Realistic expectations

Disruption in any one area can impede normal speech/language development

12

Disordered mechanisms in language?

- Hearing sensitivity:

- Motor skills:

- Structural integrity:

- Perception:

- Intelligence:

- Memory:

- Attention:

- Emotional status:

- Ability to relate or interact:

- General health:

- Hearing sensitivity: deafness, conductive hearing loss, otitis media

- Motor skills: needed to manipulate articulators, combine and sequence motor mvts

- Structural integrity: cleft palate, vocal fold abnormality; sucking, feeding, swallowing

- Perception: problems interpreting meaning of sounds (auditory or perceptual disorder)

- Intelligence: cognitive limitations interfere with learning and understanding concepts represented by words

- Memory: inability to learn sounds, sequences of sounds, vocab, grammar, syntax

- Attention: attention deficits interfere with following directions, receptive and expressive vocab development, general info

- Emotional status: anxiety, depression interfere with ability to receive, process information

- Ability to relate or interact: autistic spectrum

- General health: chronic illness interferes with response to stimulation

13

Sources of disordered environment (broad)?

- Stimulation/exposure

- Reinforcement

- Realistic expectations

14

Examples of disordered environments in terms of stimulation/exposure?

Does not depend on SES!!

- Failure to speak with, read to children

- Failure to expose to rich language and learning experiences (e.g. grocery store, gas station)

- Excessive, inappropriate stimulation (e.g. electronics) has become societal problem

- Effect of parents with language disorders

- Bilingual environments is NOT a disadvantage, with certain exceptions (if struggling to learn 1, best to wait for 2nd)

15

Examples of disordered environments in terms of reinforcement?

- Failure to reinforce sounds made in infancy

- Cooing and babbling

- Expanding language produced by child

16

Examples of disordered environments in terms of realistic expectations?

- Should reflect mechanism and age

- Inappropriate expectations can result in stuttering, anxiety selective mutism

17

Speech and language milestones: articulation?

Articulation = production of speech sounds (see appendix for development of specific phenomes)

- 2-3 yo: speech understandable to parents

- 3-4 yo speech: understandable to strangers Common articulation problems reduce intelligibility:

- Consonant substitutions

- Consonant omissions

- Reduction of consonant clusters: producing only one consonant

- Sound to mark a cluster

- Distortion of sounds: lisp

18

Speech and language milestones: fluency?

Children 3-5 go through period of "normal dysfluency" when language is rapidly developing and expanding

- Characterized by tension-free, whole word repetitions ("I see- I see- I see a bird")

Stuttering- repetitions of prolongations that are struggled or tense ("Wh-wh-wh-who is it?", "Shhhhe's here"), blocks, pitch increases

Associated behaviors: eye blinking, head or body movement, avoidance

19

Speech and language milestones: language?

(See appendices for major milestones)

SEE SYLLABUS FOR MILESTONES birth - 5 yo

- Language development begins with differentiation of crying; continues throughout life

- Language (receptive and expressive) develops concurrently in several areas including semantic, syntactic, morphologic, pragmatic

- By 5-6 yrs, conversation may be adult-like, but subtle development continues, and reciprocity between oral and written language development (reading and writing) also occurs

20

Why do delays in language development have serious long-term consequences?

What are some of the possible resultant disorders?

Because language:

- contributes to abstract thinking

- allows a child to imagine, manipulate, create and share new ideas

- becomes a mental tool to create strategies for mastery of memory, feelings, problem solving

Children with significant speech/language disorders

- may have mental health issues

- are at high risk for learning disabilities and written language disorders

21

Etiology of communication disorders (broad)?

- Articulation

- Voice

- Fluency

- Language

22

Etiology of communication disorders: articulation?

- Neuromotor impairment (dysarthria)

- Difficulty with motor programming and sequencing of movements (apraxia)

- Phenological deficits (rule-based)

- Functional/developmental: hearing, impairment, cognitive limitations, structural abnormalities, environmental influences, deprivation, habituation

23

Etiology of communication disorders: voice?

- Polyps or nodules on vocal folds may be caused by vocal abuse (e.g. yelling, habitual throat-clearing)

- Structural anomalies (e.g. velopharyngeal insufficiency, cleft palate, large adenoids)

- Impairment of vocal folds

- Gastro-esophageal reflux

- Respiratory difficulties can affect loudness, pitch, quality

24

Etiology of communication disorders: fluency?

- Familial incidence

- Capacities and demands model: motor, language skills, cognitive development, emotional maturity not equal to demands of environment

25

Etiology of communication disorders: language?

- Discrepancy between verbal/nonverbal ability

- Strong family incidence

- Mental retardation

- Learning disability

- Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

- Degenerative disorders

- Autism/pervasive development delay (PDD)

- Hearing loss

- Traumatic brain injury

- Abuse/neglect

- Otitis media

26

T/F: Speech/language development may be slow because child is lazy or siblings talk for them

False

27

T/F: Children can outgrow speech/language deficits

False

28

T/F: Early recognition and therapy are detrimental because they make children self-conscious

False

29

T/F: Being raise in a bilingual environment does not have adverse long-term consequences on language development

True

30

T/F: Seemingly remarkable early language development is a sure sign of superior intelligence and academic success

False

31

Speech and language developmental milestones from 0-3 months?

- Coos

- Social smile

32

Speech and language developmental milestones from 4-6 months?

- Orients and responds to voice

33

Speech and language developmental milestones from 7-12 months?

- May recognize words for common names in environment and own name

- Uses gesture (waving, holding arms out to be picked up) to communicate

- Imitates different speech sounds

34

Speech and language developmental milestones from 10-12 months?

- May say "mama" or "dada" and a few other words

35

Speech and language developmental milestones at age 2?

- 200 words

36

Speech and language developmental milestones at age 3?

- 1000 words

37

Speech and language developmental milestones from 2-3 yo?

- Understandable to parents most of the time

- Follows 2 requests

- Asks why

38

Speech and language developmental milestones from 3-4 yo?

- Understandable to strangers most of the time

- Understands words for some colors, shapes

- Answers simple questions

- Can rhyme, use pronouns, plurals, 4+ word sentences

39

What age for coos?

Birth - 3 mo

40

What age for 200 words?

2 years

41

What age for using gesture to communicate?

7-12 mo

42

What age for social smile?

birth - 3 mo

43

What age for understandable to parents most of the time?

2-3 yrs

44

What age for orienting and responding to voice?

4-6 mo

45

What age for understandable to strangers most of the time?

3-4 yo

46

What age for babbling with consonant sounds?

7-12 mo

47

What age for recognizing words for common names in environment and own names?

7-12 mo

48

What age to say "mama" or "dada" and a few other words?

10-12 mo

49

What age for imitating different speech sounds?

7-12 mo

50

What age for 1000 words?

age 3

51

Speech and language developmental milestones at 4-5 yrs?

- Understands most of what is said at home

- Names letters and numbers

- Tells a short story

- Talks in different ways depending on listener

52

Speech and language developmental milestones at 5-6 years?

May be adult-like, but subtle development continues and reciprocity between oral and written development (reading and writing) also occurs

53

What age to follow two requests?

2-3 yrs

54

What age to rhyme, use pronouns, plurals, 4+ word sentences?

3-4 yrs

55

What age to answer simple questions?

3-4 yrs

56

What age to ask why?

2-3 yrs

57

What age to understand most of what is said at home?

4-5 yrs

58

What age to have adult-like conversation?

5-6 yrs

59

What age to name letters and numbers, tell short story, talk in different ways based on listener?

4-5 yrs

60

Question: A 5 yo who says,

"Her want to come"

A. Has a speech disorder

B. Has a language disorder

C. Has a speech and language disorder

D. Has none of the above

Answer:

A 5 yo who says, "Her want to come"

A. Has a speech disorder

B. Has a language disorder

C. Has a speech and language disorder

D. Has none of the above

61

Question:

A 2 yo who has recurrent ear infections:

A. Is at high risk for having a speech disorder

B. Is at high risk for having a language disorder

C. Is at high risk for both speech and language disorders

D. Is not at high risk for having either speech and/or language disorder

Answer:

A 2 yo who has recurrent ear infections:

A. Is at high risk for having a speech disorder

B. Is at high risk for having a language disorder

C. Is at high risk for both speech and language disorders

D. Is not at high risk for having either speech and/or language disorder