What is sex?
A persons' biological identity (chromosomes, genitalia...)
What is gender?
A person's social and cultural identity as male or female (how other people understand your sex based on behavior, appearance, etc.); culturally determined social meanings and characteristics
What is gender identity?
One's awareness of one's gender and its implications
What is gender role standard?
A behavior, value, or motive that members of a society consider more typical or appropriate for members of one sex; also culturally determined
What is gender typing?
The process by which a child becomes aware of his or her gender and acquires motives, values, and behaviors considered appropriate for members of that sex
What are the 3 components of gender typing?
1. Gender identity
2. Gender-role stereotypes
3. Gender-based behavior
Gender identity by age?
0-2: gender discrimination; self labeling
- 4 mo old infants can discriminate male/female voices
- 1 yo infants can discriminate male/female faces
3-6: gender conservation (permanence of the situation... I am a boy now and will be in the future)
- Labeling typ established by 3, but not future-oriented (may fear that behavior can change gender)
7-11: awareness of gender typicality or variance and connectedness
12-adult: identity saliency increases (know what you are, understand differences, place self on spectrum)
Gender stereotyping by age?
0-2: early emergence (early ideas); primarily influenced by parent attitudes toward child
3-6: interests, activities and occupations (rigid)
- Grade school kids draw sharp distinctions between sexes on psychological dimensions and treat stereotypes as "rules"
7-11: personality traits and achievement domains (less rigid)
12-adult: gender intensification
*First learn positive traits of their own gender and negative traits of the other gender
- Early on the rigidity reflects an ego-centric need to have clear cognitive representations of gender roles
**In latency, can discriminate between obligatory and non-obligatory standards (boys don't usually play with dolls but it's not a bad thing)
When do you see increases in bullying based on gender identity/stereotyping?
What is gender intensification?
Magnification of sex differences that is associated with increased pressure to conform to gender roles
- Influenced by parents, friendships, romantic pursuits and social pressures
- Intensity lessens by late adolescence but even adults remain very intolerant of males that disregard gender-role prescriptions
Gender typed behavior by age?
0-2: toy/activity preferences; gender segregation
- Preferences emerge as early as 1 yo; many 18-24 mo will refuse to play with cross-gendered toys even if no others are available
3-6: toy/activity preferences and gender segregation increases
- By age 5, will actively reject opposite sex playmates
7-11: toy/activity preference increases (boys > girls); segregation persists
- By age 10, those that maintain clear boundaries with same gender play partners are seen as more popular and socially competent
12-adult: conformity increases and gender segregation decreases
Why do boys face greater pressure to conform to traditional gender role behavior?
Many cultures assign greater status to male gender role; also reason why girls retain male interests longer in latency (given more leeway; male role is valued)
What probably triggers gender conformity in girls during adolescence?
- Possibly feminization of their bodies during puberty
- Need to attract partners
- Cognitive groth that results in increased consciousness of body image, other's opinions of them, and increased susceptibility to gender intensification
Boys or girls have more developmental vulnerability?
Developmental vulnerability: boys
- Boys more vulnerable to prenatal and perinatal exposures and experience higher rates of autism, LD, ADHD, emotional disorders, MR
Boys or girls are more verbal?
- Girls show earlier acquisition and development of verbal skills, especially comprehension and fluency and test higher in comprehension through adolescence; boys show some advantage in verbal analogies
Boys or girls are more visual/spatial?
- Boys have slight advantage, detectable as early as age 4 that persists across lifetime; testosterone may stimulate these areas of the brain
Boys are girls are more mathematical?
Mathematical: boys and girls
- Boys have better arithmetic reasoning, especially among high achievers and problem-solving skills
- Girls have better computational skills and tend to have better math grades
Boys or girls are more active?
- Boys more active prior to and after birth, through childhood and have a preference for rough and tumble play
- Girls are less likely to initiate or be receptive to R and T play
Boys or girls are more aggressive?
Aggression: boys (slightly girls)
- Boys show more physical and verbal aggression as early as age 2 and evidence 10x as much antisocial and violent crime as girls in adolescence
- Girls typically express hostility through covert means, including snubbing, ignoring or undermining social status or relationships
Boys or girls are more compliant?
- From preschool, girls are more likely to comply with requests and demands of authority figures; girls use tact and polite suggestion to encourage compliance in others
- Boys tend to use demanding or controlling strategies
Boys or girls are more risk takers?
Risk taking: boys
- Boys are more likely to take risks in uncertain situations (partially due to higher levels of activity but also determined by parents permissiveness and tendency to enforce rules against risk taking with their daughters rather than sons) which persists through adolescence and results in experiencing more consequences
Boys or girls are more expressive?
- Infant emotional displays are equivocal
- From toddlerhood onward boys express primarily anger whereas
- Girls have a greater range of emotional expression and verbiage
- This is partially influenced by parents tendency to talk with their daughters about emotions and emotional events than their sons
Boys or girls are more sensitive/empathic?
Sensitivity/empathy: boys and girls
- While girls and women tend to describe themselves as more nurturant and empathic; studies suggest that girls and boys react equivocally to other’s distress and show equivocal amounts of concern and affection toward pets and older relatives
- So they may feel the same, but manage that feeling differently
Boys or girls are more fearful/timid?
Fear and timidity: girls
- Girls more likely to be fearful, timid, cautious and less assertive in uncertain situations as early as 1 year of age
Boys or girls have more self-esteem?
- Boys show higher global self esteem that becomes more noticeable in adolescences and persists into adulthood
Characteristics of boy vs. girl play
Some of these are old ideas... changing
- Larger groups, rougher and more expansive, streets and public places
- Friendships based on mutual interest and activity
- In groups they argue, heckle speakers, and call names; there is more conflict, threats of physical force but without interfering with group continuance
- Smaller groups, quieter play, in private homes or yards
- Friendships based on mutuality, sharing with 1 or 2 girls and breakups result in more intense emotional reactions
- In groups, they are more likely to express agreement, pause to include others, have less conflict and strive to achieve consensus through "conflict mitigating strategies"
Characteristics of psychological androgyny?
- Having male and female gender roles
- Androgynous individuals more frequently express happiness, sadness, love, hate as compared to individuals having masculine, feminine or undifferentiated gender roles
- Masculine gender role more than biological sex predicts expression of anger and feminine gender role more than biological sex predicts expression of anger at lower levels
- Evolutionary pressure and natural selection
- Expressive role of women (a social prescription, usually directed toward females, that one should be cooperative, kind, nurturant, and sensitive to the needs of others)
- Instrumental role of men (a social prescription, usually directed toward males, that one should be dominant, independent, assertive, competitive and goal oriented)
- Women biologically need to dedicate more time to procreation (gestation) which required traits to promote raising of children (kindness, gentility, nurturant traits) and to prefer men that would be kind and provide resources to ensure the child’s survival
- Men biologically dedicate less time to procreation and their survival is best ensured by multiple partners leading to increased competitiveness, assertiveness and aggression which increase their chances of attracting a mate and procuring resources; they cite improved visual spatial skills of men (needed for hunting) as evidence
A series of critical events affect a person’s preference for the masculine or feminine gender role
- Biological: about 50% of the differences in people’s masculine self concepts are accounted for by genotype but only 0-20% of the differences in their feminine self concepts
Gender identity and roles develop during the phallic stage of development (ages 3-6) as children begin to emulate and identify with the same-sex parent (Freud)
Theories: social learning
- Direct tuition: children are encouraged and rewarded for gender appropriate behaviors
- Observational learning: adopt the attitudes and behaviors of a variety of same-sex models
Theories: cognitive developmental
Gender role development depends on cognitive development
- Basic gender identity
- Gender stability
- Gender consistency (conservation)
Theories: gender schema
Gender schema- organized sets of beliefs and expectations about males and females that influence the kinds of information attended to, elaborated and remembered
What are the overall different theories?
- Social learning
- Cognitive- developmental
- Gender schema
Integrative table: events/outcome and theory by age
What components are involved in sexual identity?
- Sexual self esteem
- Sexual self efficacy
- Sexual attitudes
The point is that sexual identity development is more than just sexual behavior and orientation; incorporates ideas of sensuality, intimacy, sexual identity, and sexual health
What is sexual identity development?
Process of mastering emerging sexual feelings and forming a sense of oneself as a sexual being
What is sexual orientation?
Person’s erotic and emotional preference (in fantasy, arousal, sexual behavior, identity and social role) toward same or opposite sex
Sexual identity in infancy?
- Oedipus and Electra (Freud believed instinctual sexual drives were inborn in the intra-psychic world of children)... now think more due to attachment than sexuality
- Infant self stimulation
Sexual identity in preadolescence?
- Body awareness
- Physiologic function
- Sexualized behavior
How do girls and boys respond to changes during puberty?
- Parental, peer and community reactions to puberty affect the way the adolescent understands the process as a negative, positive or embarrassing phase of development.
Outcomes of early maturation in boys and girls?
Outcomes of late maturation in boys and girls?
What determines sexual orientation?
- Biological factors are thought to predominate
- There is little support for any particular contributing environmental factor in determining sexual orientation
- Environmental factors are likely to influence the expression of sexual attraction, behavior, and orientation labels
Breakdown of sexual attraction by gender
Sexual behavior includes what?
Breakdown of sexual behavior by gender?
- Partnered behavior
What is coming out? When does it begin?
- Coming out is a unique developmental task for same sex attracted youth
- It is a lifelong process and most typically begins in late adolescence or early adulthood
- More recent data suggest that adolescent as disclosing same sex attraction as early as 13 years of age