Flashcards in 6) Child Psychological Development Deck (25)
When does a baby start to form specific attachments to "key people" and start to be wary about strangers?
What are the positive outcomes of a secure attachment in a child early life?
-Better social competence
-Better Peer relations
-Better motional and physical health
What was Ainsworth's "stranger situation" test?
Mother and child playing in a room, mother leaves child with stranger and you observe how the child reacts. Then, she comes back and you observe how the child reacts - this is the key part.
What is an insecure avoidant style of attachment? What does the indicate about the mother/child relationship?
Child is happy to be separated from mother, indicating the mother encourages an independent lifestyle for the child
What is an insecure ambivalent style of attachment? What does the indicate about the mother/child relationship?
Child is a bit clingy and distressed even with the mother, she can't comfort them. This indicates an inconsistent with her response to the child.
What is an insecure disorganised style of attachment? What does the indicate about the mother/child relationship?
Child didn't seem to enjoy the mother being back, indicates the mother is depressed or even possibly abusing the child.
Why is the short absence of a carer most distressing to children aged 6 months to 3 years?
-Can't keep image of carer in their head
-Poor language skills, don't understand she'll be back tomorrow etc.
-Feel abandoned, ideas of punishment for being 'naughty'
What criticisms are given to attachment theory?
-Overly focused on mothers
-Multiple attachment figures
-Quality of substitute care not considered
Why in the 1950s/60s was parental access to children in hospitals limited?
-Wards sterile and clinical - parents bring disease
-Parents leaving was distressing for child - limit their visits, reduce distress
What changes (as compared to the 1950s/60s) have been put in place in the clinical environment to improve the experience for children?
-Allow carer access
-Allow attachment objects (transitional objects - no longer relying on parents, road to independence)
-Reassure child they aren;t being punished
-Environment like home
-High quality care (nurses) - the same people seeing them.
What four stages make up Piaget's theory of cognitive development? What ages are they related to?
-Concrete operational (7-12)
-Formal operational (12+)
What criticisms are given about the Piagetian approach ?
-Focuses on what a child can't do, now what they can do
-It encourages given partial information as the child won't understand - damaging as they will form own ideas
What did Harlow theorise was the main reason for attachment between a carer and a child? What was it thought to be before this?
Safety and support as opposed to giving food beforehand
What behaviours do infants exhibit to keep a carer close?
-Proximity seeking behaviours - following them around
-Contact maintaining behaviours - crying to get them to come over
What three stages of social development in infancy did Schaffer outline?
-6 weeks - newborns show preference for humans over inanimate objects
-3 months -distinguish strangers from non-strangers, however, anyone can handle them
-7/8 months - specific attachments form, don't want to be held by strangers
What factors predict the formation of a secure attachment in a child?
-Carer sensitive to child's signals
-Rapid, appropriate response
-Interactive synchrony with carer
-Carer accepts their role
What behavioural changes can happen when the attachment figure is absent?
What physical changes can happen when the attachment figure is absent?
-Changes in heart rate
What three phases did Bowlby describe concerning the effects of separation?
-Protest (distressed, look for carer, cling to substitute)
-Despair (signs of helplessness, withdrawn)
-Detachment (interested in surrounding, when carer comes back they aren't happy)
What is social referencing?
The idea that you reflect what you see around you, you adapt to your environment to fit in...a form of empathy
Describe the first stage of Piaget's theory of cognitive development. When does it occur?
Sensori-motor (0-2 years):
-Experience world through senses
-Development of motor co-ordination
-No abstract concepts
-Developing awareness of where they end and where the world starts
-Understanding that things are permanent - peekaboo no longer funny.
Describe the second stage of Piaget's theory of cognitive development. When does it occur?
Pre-operational (2-7 years):
-Egocentricism - can't imagine other viewpoints
-Classification by single feature
Describe the third stage of Piaget's theory of cognitive development. When does it occur?
Concrete operational stage (7-12 years):
-Think logically, but can't think abstract
-Understand numbers, mass, weight
-Classification by multiple features
-Able to see other perspectives
Describe the fourth stage of Piaget's theory of cognitive development. When does it occur?
Formal operational (12 years +):