Why is nutrition essential?
Growth and development
Energy for metabolism
What drives growth in the
c) pubertal stages of growth?
b) Growth hormone
c) Sex hormones
What is the estimated average requirement?
Median line on a bell curve of nutritional intake vs number of people, i.e the average energy requirement of a population
What value of nutritional intake is 2 standard deviations above the estimated average requirement and is sufficient for 97% of the population?
Reference nutrient intake
What is the reference nutrient intake for protein?
12.7g to 14.5g
from 4 to 18 months respectively
Most infants (do / don't) exceed their estimated average requirement for energy intake.
What is a consequence of this?
do exceed it
meaning they gain weight > obesity
Where is Vitamin A acquired in the diet?
Where is Vitamin C acquired in the diet?
How is Vitamin D acquired?
Who should take Vitamin D supplements?
Children not on formula milk
Virtually everyone else in Scotland
What is the reference nutrient intake for sodium?
280mg - 500mg
from 4 months to 18 months respectively
Most infants (fall below / exceed) the RNI for sodium.
How many portions of oily fish should children eat per week?
1 / week
What is the physical activity guideline for children 0-5 years?
At least 3 hours (180 mins) per day
(if child is capable of walking)
What is the physical activity guideline for children aged 5 - 18 years old?
> 60 mins physical activity / day
at least 3 days
What is the physical activity guideline for adults?
> 30 mins of physical activity
at least 5 days a week
For how long should infants be breastfed?
First six months of life
What should be used as a breast milk substitute only if required?
Can it replace breast milk?
No, not as nutritionally complete
What is weaning?
Moving on from exclusively milk to foods
Why is weaning necessary?
At > 6 months breast milk alone doesn't satisfy infant's dietary requirements
Also their iron stores are depleted
What is the minimum age you should wean your child?
What is the recommended age?
When should cow's milk be introduced to a child's diet?
be introduced to a child's diet?
The first foods you give to a child during weaning should be free of what and high in what?
Free of gluten
High in iron
Foods which a child may potentially be allergic to should be introduced (all at once / individually).
When weaning a child, the foods you given them should be (high / low) in salt and sugar.
low in salt and sugar
How often should a child be fed
a) between 6 and 8 months
b) after 9 months?
a) 2 - 3 times a day
b) 3 - 4 times a day
What are the four areas of development?
Fine motor and vision
Language and hearing
Social interaction and play
What's better - formula milk or breast milk?
Contains all them nutrients
What social factors are associated with poor growth?