3: Sick Child 1 - Common acute illnesses Flashcards Preview

Child Health Week 2 2017/18 > 3: Sick Child 1 - Common acute illnesses > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3: Sick Child 1 - Common acute illnesses Deck (51)
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1

Do children have the same diseases as adults?

No

2

Children have (larger / smaller) heads than adults.

larger heads

3

How do children's airways differ from adults?

Larynx is more anterior - more difficult to access

Different respiratory infections e.g bronchiolitis

4

Children have (faster / slower) heart rates than adults.

faster HRs

5

Children have (faster / slower) respiratory rates than adults.

faster

6

Children have (higher / lower) systolic BPs than adults.

lower systolic BPs

7

Children have (larger / smaller) occipital bones than adults.

larger

their heads have larger surfaces areas than when in adulthood

8

What is the blood volume of a baby in ml/kg?

80ml/kg

so a 3kg child will have 240ml of blood

9

What change occurs with regard to haemoglobin when you are born?

Foetal Hb > Adult Hb

10

What are the three big causes of childhood mortality?

INFECTION

Prematurity

Birth trauma / hypoxia

11

Which continent has the highest child mortality rate?

Africa

12

What respiratory diseases commonly affect children?

Bronchiolitis

Croup

Pneumonia

13

Which GI disease commonly affect children?

Gastroenteritis

14

What are common chronic diseases seen in children?

Epilepsy

Asthma

Coeliac / IBD

15

What complication of infection is the commonest reason for acute illness in children?

Sepsis

16

Any site of infection can develop into what?

Sepsis

17

What is acute inflammation of the bronchioles called?

Bronchiolitis

18

What infectious agent tends to cause bronchiolitis?

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

fact from 1st year

19

How is bronchiolitis treated?

No anti-virals for RSV, so SUPPORTIVE:

Oxygen

Anti-inflammatories

Nutrition

20

What is croup?

Infection of larynx, trachea, or upper bronchial tree

21

What is the classical symptom of croup?

Barking cough

22

What is the treatment for croup?

Oral steroid

to limit inflammation and avoid need for intubation

23

What is the diagnostic sign of croup on a neck X-ray?

Steeple sign

narrowing of pharynx

24

How is aspiration of foreign bodies confirmed?

Chest x-ray

PA AND lateral so you're sure it's not somewhere else

25

How do children present after aspiration of a foreign body?

Acute onset respiratory distress

+/- Cough and haemoptysis

26

Does every child with a wheeze have asthma?

No

27

What causes exacerbations of asthma in the

a) summer

b) winter?

a) Atopy e.g hayfever

b) Viral infection

28

What infection of the lower respiratory tract commonly affects children?

Which genetic disorder predisposes you to it?

Pneumonia

CF

29

What are CNS infections commonly seen in children?

Meningitis

Encephalitis

30

Which investigation has a very low threshold for use in children with unexplained septic symptoms?

Lumbar puncture