Do children have the same diseases as adults?
Children have (larger / smaller) heads than adults.
How do children's airways differ from adults?
Larynx is more anterior - more difficult to access
Different respiratory infections e.g bronchiolitis
Children have (faster / slower) heart rates than adults.
Children have (faster / slower) respiratory rates than adults.
Children have (higher / lower) systolic BPs than adults.
lower systolic BPs
Children have (larger / smaller) occipital bones than adults.
their heads have larger surfaces areas than when in adulthood
What is the blood volume of a baby in ml/kg?
so a 3kg child will have 240ml of blood
What change occurs with regard to haemoglobin when you are born?
Foetal Hb > Adult Hb
What are the three big causes of childhood mortality?
Birth trauma / hypoxia
Which continent has the highest child mortality rate?
What respiratory diseases commonly affect children?
Which GI disease commonly affect children?
What are common chronic diseases seen in children?
Coeliac / IBD
What complication of infection is the commonest reason for acute illness in children?
Any site of infection can develop into what?
What is acute inflammation of the bronchioles called?
What infectious agent tends to cause bronchiolitis?
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
fact from 1st year
How is bronchiolitis treated?
No anti-virals for RSV, so SUPPORTIVE:
What is croup?
Infection of larynx, trachea, or upper bronchial tree
What is the classical symptom of croup?
What is the treatment for croup?
to limit inflammation and avoid need for intubation
What is the diagnostic sign of croup on a neck X-ray?
narrowing of pharynx
How is aspiration of foreign bodies confirmed?
PA AND lateral so you're sure it's not somewhere else
How do children present after aspiration of a foreign body?
Acute onset respiratory distress
+/- Cough and haemoptysis
Does every child with a wheeze have asthma?
What causes exacerbations of asthma in the
a) Atopy e.g hayfever
b) Viral infection
What infection of the lower respiratory tract commonly affects children?
Which genetic disorder predisposes you to it?
What are CNS infections commonly seen in children?
Which investigation has a very low threshold for use in children with unexplained septic symptoms?