Average weight of a baby is what?

**3.5kg**

Babies of mothers with uncontrolled diabetes tend to be **(bigger / smaller)**.

What is this called?

**bigger**

**Macrosomia**

How do you determine if a child's growth if normal?

**Growth chart**

In a Gaussian distribution, what is the line in the middle called?

**Mean / median / 50th centile**

What is a standard deviation?

**Measure of variability from the mean**

What is a z score?

**Number of standard deviations from the mean**

In a Gaussian distribution, what percentage of values are

a) within 1 SD of the mean

b) within 2 SDs of the mean?

**a) 68.3%**

**b) 95.4%**

What can you say about a child's growth if they are

a) staying on centiles

b) crossing centiles?

a) Growing normally

b) Not growing normally

What is height velocity?

Change in height over time

What two criteria need to be true for you to say a child is **growing normally**?

**Measurements are normal for kids their age**

**Rate of growth is normal for kids their age**

How is weight distribution changing in response to obesity?

**Shift to right**

**Longer tail on the right **(normal is shifted slightly to right but there are more extremes)

The average height of the population is (**increasing / decreasing**).

**increasing**

Height is measured on **(inspiration / expiration).**

**expiration**

too much variability otherise

The pubertal growth spurt is **(greater / smaller) **and **(earlier / later) **in girls than in boys.

Why?

**smaller**

**earlier**

Less testosterone

Which two functions on a growth chart can you use to calculate the height a child

a) **should **be

b) **is going to be **based off their current height

**a) Mid-parental height**

**b) Adult height predictor**

At what age do boys and girls tend to enter puberty?

**11 years old**

Girls earlier, boys later

Which hormones drive puberty?

**Gonadotrophins**

FSH and LH

What is the marker of puberty in girls?

**Thelarche**

breast bud development

cannot be said to be in puberty until then

When does menarche occur in girls?

Around 2 years after thelarche

so **13 years old**

What is an indicator of pubertal stage in boys and girls?

**Girls **- breast budding

**Boys **- testicular volume

What is **precocious puberty**?

Is it more common in girls or boys?

Onset of puberty before **8 / 9 **(girls / boys)

More common in girls

What is **delayed **puberty?

Is it more common in girls or boys?

No puberty by the age of **13 / 14** (girls / boys)

More common in boys