64 - Diseases of the head and neck Flashcards Preview

Clinical Pathology > 64 - Diseases of the head and neck > Flashcards

Flashcards in 64 - Diseases of the head and neck Deck (34):
1

Most common malignant tumour of oral cavity?

SCC

2

most likely spot to get tumour in oral cavity?

floor of mouth

3

Carcinoma of oral cavity - aetiology

Tobacco and alcohol note synergistic relationship between two
Meat and red chilli powder
genetics

4

HPV types

HPV16 and 18

5

Protective factors for oral cavity carcinomas

anti oxidants in fruit and veg (vit A and C)

6

Pre-cancerous lesions and conditions

submucous fibrosis
actinic keratosis
lichen planus
leukoplakia and erythroplakia
chronic hyperplastic candidosis

7

most common cancer in larynx

SCC

8

HPV numbers for laryngeal cancer

6 and 11

9

Risk factors for laryngeal cancer

Tobacco and -OH
Diet with low green leafy veg and rich in salt preserved meats and dietary fats
Metal/plastic workers
Exposure to paint, diesel and gas fumes, asbestos.
Radiation
Laryngopharyngeal reflux
Genetics

10

Lichen planus -

muco-cutaneous condition

11

Lichen planus - pathogenesis

unknown however suggested t-cell mediated immune response

12

Lichen planus - clinical presentation

itchy, purple papules forming plaques with Wickham's striae

Oral lesions = reticular striations, plaque-like, erosive, ulcerative lesions, desquamative gingivitis

Small risk of malignant transformation

13

Vocal cord nodules and polyps

Reactive lesions
Heavy smokers or singers
Adults and men affected

14

Vocal cord nodules and polyps - clinical presentation

hoarseness
change in vocal quality
increased effort producing voice
usually located on the true vocal cords

15

Nasal polyps

Recurrent attacks of rhinitis
4cm
allergic aetiology

16

Nasal polyps - histology

oedematous mucosa with loose stroma containing hyperplastic/cystic mucous glands infiltrated with mixed inflammatory infiltrate rich in eosinophils

17

Acute and chronic otitis media -

infants and children

viral w/ general URTI

18

Acute and chronic otitis media - causative organisms

strep. pneumoniae
h.influenzae
moraxella catarrhalis

19

Acute and chronic otitis media - causative organisms chronically

pseudomonas aeruginosa, staph. aureus

20

Acute and chronic otitis media - complications

perforation of ear drum
aural polyps, cholesteatoma
mastoiditis, temporal cerebritis or abscess
destructive necrotising otitis

21

Destructive necrotising ostitis is a consequence of otitis media

in a diabetic person esp. when P. aeruginosa is the causative organism

22

Cholesteatoma -

Associated w/ chronic otitis media

23

Cholesteatoma - pathogenesis

chronic inflammation and perforation of the eardrum due to ingrowth of squamous epithelium or metaplasia of secretory epithelial lining of middle ear

24

Cholesteatoma - microscopically

cystic lesions lined by keratinising squamous epithelium and filled with debris and cholesterol clefts

25

Cholesteatoma - complications

precipitates surrounding inflam rxn enhance by rupture and may result in foreign body giant cell rxn

erosion of ossicles, the labyrinth and adjacent bone

hearing loss

v. rare. CNS complications: brain abscess and meningitis

26

Otosclerosis

abnormal bone deposition in the middle ear usually bilateral. begins early in life and familial

27

Otosclerosis - pathogenesis

uncoupling of normal bone resorption and formation

fibrous ankylosis -> bony overgrowth -> anchorage of middle ear bones to oval window

28

Otosclerosis - clinical features

Degree of immobilisation governs the severity of hearing loss

Slowly progressive leading to hearing loss

29

Labyrinthitis -

inflammatory disorder of inner ear

30

Labyrinthitis - clinical presentation

disturbances of balance and hearing

31

Labyrinthitis - autoimmune processes

Wegener granulomatosis or polyarteritis nodosa

32

Carcinomas - ear

External (pinna) - BCC and SCC. elderly men

Ear canal - SCC, middle-aged to elderly women not associated w/ sun exposure

33

Paragangliomas -

most common tumour of the middle ear, originating in the paraganglia

34

Paragangliomas - presenting symptoms

pulsatile tinnitus, hearing loss, aural pressure/fullness, dizziness, otalgia and bloody otorrhea

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