Flashcards in 42 - Paediatric Haematology Deck (25):
% of HbF at birth?
Site of haematopoeisis varies
chromosome 16 can make what
zeta -> alpha
chromosome 11 can make what
epsilon -> gamma -> beta -> theta
4-14 / 40 week gestation transition
Hb Gower-1 -> Hb Portland -> Hb Gower-2
Hb A = a2b2
a2theta2 = HbA2
Which Ig crosses the placenta?
What does breast milk contain?
IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM -> passive immunity
When do people start producing antibodies
2-3 months out of 12
When are satisfactory immune responses made
6 out of 12 months
When are immunisations given to babies?
3 months in
Reach adult numbers of platelets when? and why?
18 weeks out of 40 gestation
to survive birth! bloody process!
Platelets are functionally different at birth in what respect
Hyporesponsive to certain agonists
Hyperresponsive to vWF
Clotting factors at birth
Present at birth but ineffective
Coagulation proteins CANNOT cross the placenta
This is to prevent clotting of placenta
What clotting factors are normal at birth
Fibrinogen, FV, FVIII, FXIII are normal at birth
When do haemostatic parameters reach adult values by?
Vitamin K dependent proteins
FII, FVII, FIX, FX, protein C, protein S are vit K dependent
Haemorrhagic disease of new born
Babies just bleeding constantly from birth
Prevented by routine neonatal vit K
Why is mothers having anti-convulsants a problem?
Uses same pathway at vitamin K so incites haemorrhagic new born
Congenital anaemias in childhood
bone marrow failure syndromes
bone marrow infiltration
Causes of peripheral destruction in neonates
Rh/ABO or other incompatibility
Membrane defect: hereditary spherocytosis
Enzyme defects: G6PD, PK deficiency
Blood loss in neonates
Twin to twin transfusion where one twin has bled into another twin
Anaemia in childhood
Acquired: iron, B12, folate deficiency
Bone marrow failure
Bone marrow infiltration
Peripheral destruction: haemolysis
B12 deficiency - common or?
Massive stores in body
Can last years after switching to vegan for example