42 - Paediatric Haematology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 42 - Paediatric Haematology Deck (25):
1

% of HbF at birth?

55-65%

Site of haematopoeisis varies

2

chromosome 16 can make what

zeta -> alpha

3

chromosome 11 can make what

epsilon -> gamma -> beta -> theta

4

4-14 / 40 week gestation transition

Hb Gower-1 -> Hb Portland -> Hb Gower-2

5

>14/40 gestation

HbF (a2gamma2)

6

neonatal stage

Hb A = a2b2
a2theta2 = HbA2

7

Which Ig crosses the placenta?

IgG

8

What does breast milk contain?

IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM -> passive immunity

9

When do people start producing antibodies

2-3 months out of 12

10

When are satisfactory immune responses made

6 out of 12 months

11

When are immunisations given to babies?

3 months in

12

Reach adult numbers of platelets when? and why?

18 weeks out of 40 gestation

to survive birth! bloody process!

13

Platelets are functionally different at birth in what respect

Hyporesponsive to certain agonists
Hyperresponsive to vWF

14

Clotting factors at birth

Present at birth but ineffective
Coagulation proteins CANNOT cross the placenta
This is to prevent clotting of placenta

15

What clotting factors are normal at birth

Fibrinogen, FV, FVIII, FXIII are normal at birth

16

When do haemostatic parameters reach adult values by?

six months

17

Vitamin K dependent proteins

FII, FVII, FIX, FX, protein C, protein S are vit K dependent

18

Haemorrhagic disease of new born

Babies just bleeding constantly from birth

Prevented by routine neonatal vit K

19

Why is mothers having anti-convulsants a problem?

Uses same pathway at vitamin K so incites haemorrhagic new born

20

Congenital anaemias in childhood

haemoglobinopathy
bone marrow failure syndromes
bone marrow infiltration
peripheral destruction
blood loss

21

Causes of peripheral destruction in neonates

Rh/ABO or other incompatibility

Membrane defect: hereditary spherocytosis

Enzyme defects: G6PD, PK deficiency

Infection

22

Blood loss in neonates

Twin to twin transfusion where one twin has bled into another twin

23

Anaemia in childhood

Acquired: iron, B12, folate deficiency

Bone marrow failure
Bone marrow infiltration
Peripheral destruction: haemolysis
Blood loss

24

B12 deficiency - common or?

Not really
Massive stores in body
Can last years after switching to vegan for example

25

Folate deficiency - common or?

More common

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