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Renal Week 1 2017/18 > 7: Physiology 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 7: Physiology 2 Deck (42)
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1

What are the homeostatic functions of the kidneys?

Water balance

Salt balance

Acid-base balance

Maintenance of plasma volume and osmolarity

2

What do the kidneys excrete?

Toxic metabolites

Drugs and their metabolites

3

What hormones do the kidneys secrete?

Renin

Erythropoietin

4

What are the functions of

a) renin

b) erythropoeitin?

a) Maintenance of BP by RAAS

b) Protects RBC from damage and increases RBC production - used in doping

5

What vitamin do the kidneys activate?

What is its active form called?

Vitamin D

Calcitriol

6

What is the name and function of activated Vitamin D?

Calcitriol

Enables calcium absorption in GI tract

7

At what levels are the

a) left kidney

b) right kidney

found?

a) T12 - L2 (not pushed inferiorly)

b) L1 - L3 (pushed inferiorly by liver)

8

What process propels urine from the kidneys to the bladders through the ureters?

Peristalsis

9

What appearances do the renal cortex and medulla have?

Cortex - granulated

Medulla - striated

10

The renal medulla is arranged into ___ of nephrons.

pyramids

11

How long is an adult kidney?

12 cm

12

How much of the cardiac output do the kidneys account for?

25%

loads, understandable given they filter the blood

13

What are the functional units of the kidneys?

Nephrons

arranged into pyramids in renal medulla

14

Which four processes occur in nephrons?

FILTRATION of urine from blood

REABSORPTION of water, ions, glucose, AAs from tubules into capillaries

SECRETION of "" from capillaries to tubules

EXCRETION into ureters

15

What blood vessels supply the nephrons?

Renal artery - splits into afferent and efferent arterioles

Stuff then reabsorbed into peritubular capillaries draining into Renal vein

16

What structure is the glomerulus found inside?

Bowman's capsule

17

Where does filtration of blood occur?

Glomerulus

Blood is filtered into Bowman's capsule

18

Where does urine travel from the glomerulus to reach the collecting duct?

Proximal tubules

Loop of Henle

Distal tubules

19

What part of the distal tubule passes by the glomerulus and alters renal function?

Juxtaglomerular apparatus

20

Which structures does the juxtaglomerular apparatus pass between?

Afferent and efferent arterioles

21

Nephrons are split between the renal ___ and ___.

renal cortex and medulla

22

What are the two types of nephron found in the kidney?

Cortical

Juxtamedullary

23

Which type of nephron is more common?

Cortical (80%)

24

What is the difference between cortical and juxtamedullary nephrons?

Juxtamedullary nephrons have:

- Longer Loops of Henle

- One single peritubular capillary called the vasa recta which follows the Loop of Henle

25

What type of capillaries do 

a) cortical

b) juxtamedullary nephrons have?

a) Loads of peritubular capillaries

b) One vasa recta

26

Juxtamedullary nephrons produce more ___ urine.

concentrated / hypertonic

27

Which arteriole has the wider diameter?

Afferent arteriole

28

What are podocytes?

Epithelial cells of Bowman's capsule, have big processes called filtration slits

29

What is found between the endothelium of glomerular capillaries and the podocytes of Bowman's capulse?

Basement membrane (no cells)

30

Which layers make up the glomerular membrane?

Endothelium of glomerular capillary

Basement membrane

Podocytes of Bowman's capsule