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Renal Week 1 2017/18 > 5: Histology > Flashcards

Flashcards in 5: Histology Deck (36)
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1

The kidneys maintain homeostasis of what?

Water and electrolytes

2

What do the kidneys excrete?

Toxic metabolites

e.g urea and creatitine

3

The kidneys are (exocrine/endocrine) glands.

What do they secrete?

endocrine glands

renin, erythropoietin

4

Are the kidneys intraperitoneal or retroperitoneal?

retroperitoneal

5

Which structures anchor the renal cortex to the pyramids of the renal medulla?

Renal columns

6

What structures does the urine drain through to reach the minor calyces?

Renal papillae

7

What is the renal capsule made up of?

Collagen

8

What are the functional units of the kidneys?

Nephrons

9

What are the two broad areas of a nephron?

Renal corpuscule

Renal tubule all the way up to collecting ducts

10

Where does the renal corpuscle start and end?

Glomerulus

11

Where do the renal tubules start and end?

After glomerulus

Before collecting duct

12

What cup of squamous epithelium do capillaries invaginate in the glomerulus?

Bowman's capsule

13

What brings and drains blood from the glomerulus?

Afferent and efferent arterioles

14

What is the specialised epithelium which lines glomerular capillaries?

Podocytes

15

What is the connective tissue of the kidney called?

Mesangium

16

How thick is the basal lamina of glomerular capillaries compared to normal cells?

Very thick

17

What is the purpose of the mesangium?

Supports the glomerulus and clears debris

18

What is the purpose of the proximal tubules of the kidney?

Reabsorbs water, protein, AAs, carbohydrates and glucose

19

What is a feature of proximal tubular cells which allows them to absorb loads of stuff?

Big brush border, loads of microvilli

20

How are

a) sodium

b) glucose and amino acids

absorbed by PCT cells?

a) Active transport and diffusion

b) Co-transport (SGLT2)

21

Which organelles generate the ATP that PCT cells require to work?

Mitochondria

22

What is the purpose of the loop of Henle?

Creation of a hyperosmotic environment

23

What are the loopy blood vessels which supply the interstitium of the renal medulla and cortex?

Vasa recta

24

What is the function of the distal convuluted tubules?

Acid-base and water balance

25

Which hormone controls water reabsorption by the kidneys?

"" Na ""?

ADH

Aldosterone

26

Which hormone controls sodium reabsorption by the distal tubules?

Aldosterone

27

Which hormone controls water absorption from the collecting ducts?

ADH

28

What is the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

Distal convoluted tubule loops back and runs by glomerulus

29

What are the three types of cells which make up the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

Macula densa cells (sense ion concentrations and send impulses to renin-producing cells and arterioles, adjusting filtration rate of glomerulus)

Juxtaglomerular cells (secrete renin into afferent arterioles > capillaries and out again)

Mesangial cells (connective tissue, join distal convuluted tubule to glomerulus)

30

Where is urine produced?

Renal papilla