The kidneys maintain homeostasis of what?
Water and electrolytes
What do the kidneys excrete?
e.g urea and creatitine
The kidneys are (exocrine/endocrine) glands.
What do they secrete?
Are the kidneys intraperitoneal or retroperitoneal?
Which structures anchor the renal cortex to the pyramids of the renal medulla?
What structures does the urine drain through to reach the minor calyces?
What is the renal capsule made up of?
What are the functional units of the kidneys?
What are the two broad areas of a nephron?
Renal tubule all the way up to collecting ducts
Where does the renal corpuscle start and end?
Where do the renal tubules start and end?
Before collecting duct
What cup of squamous epithelium do capillaries invaginate in the glomerulus?
What brings and drains blood from the glomerulus?
Afferent and efferent arterioles
What is the specialised epithelium which lines glomerular capillaries?
What is the connective tissue of the kidney called?
How thick is the basal lamina of glomerular capillaries compared to normal cells?
What is the purpose of the mesangium?
Supports the glomerulus and clears debris
What is the purpose of the proximal tubules of the kidney?
Reabsorbs water, protein, AAs, carbohydrates and glucose
What is a feature of proximal tubular cells which allows them to absorb loads of stuff?
Big brush border, loads of microvilli
b) glucose and amino acids
absorbed by PCT cells?
a) Active transport and diffusion
b) Co-transport (SGLT2)
Which organelles generate the ATP that PCT cells require to work?
What is the purpose of the loop of Henle?
Creation of a hyperosmotic environment
What are the loopy blood vessels which supply the interstitium of the renal medulla and cortex?
What is the function of the distal convuluted tubules?
Acid-base and water balance
Which hormone controls water reabsorption by the kidneys?
"" Na ""?
Which hormone controls sodium reabsorption by the distal tubules?
Which hormone controls water absorption from the collecting ducts?
What is the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
Distal convoluted tubule loops back and runs by glomerulus
What are the three types of cells which make up the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
Macula densa cells (sense ion concentrations and send impulses to renin-producing cells and arterioles, adjusting filtration rate of glomerulus)
Juxtaglomerular cells (secrete renin into afferent arterioles > capillaries and out again)
Mesangial cells (connective tissue, join distal convuluted tubule to glomerulus)
Where is urine produced?