7-Science-Ecology-Final Test Flashcards Preview

Katie 7th Grade > 7-Science-Ecology-Final Test > Flashcards

Flashcards in 7-Science-Ecology-Final Test Deck (59):
1

ecology

study of relationships between living things and the environment

2

introduced species

a non-native plant, animal, or other organism that is introduced to a new environment deliberately or accidentally

3

population

a group of individuals of one species living in an area (lake, PA, etc)

4

Food web

a diagram that models the feeding relationships within an ecosystem

5

producer

organisms that make their own food; form the base of the food web

6

consumer

organisms that get energy by eating food (producers and/or other consumers)

7

herbivore

consumer that eats producers (plants)

8

carnivore

consumer that eats other consumers (animals)

9

Omnivore

consumer that eats both plants and animals

10

decomposer

consumes dead/decaying organisms and/or waste

11

Photosynthesis

process in which plants use sunlight as energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into food (sugars) (also produces "waste product" of Oxygen)

12

Xylem

tubes that move water throughout a plant

13

Stomata

pores/holes in a leaf that allow water vapor, carbon dioxide, and oxygen to move in and out of the leaf

14

cell wall

support and stiffen the cells

15

vacuole

stores water

16

chloroplasts

absorbs light; house reactions of photosynthesis

17

Biome

the interaction of climate, geography, and plant/animal life

18

Carrying Capacity

the maximum poplation of a species that can be supported by its environment

19

List three ways that introduced species can impact humans and the environment:

can change an entire ecosystem
can crowd out or replace native species that are beneficial
can damage human enterprise (agriculture, forestry, fisheries), costing billions of dollars
can threaten human health

20

List three reasons why the introduction of Nile Perch to Lake Victoria was helpful.

increased total catch of fish
increased number of fishermen
brought more money to the African contries surrounding the lake

21

List three reasons why the introduction of Nile Perch to Lake Victoria was harmful:

caused the extinction of as many as 200 cichlid species
caused an increase in algae- dead zones in lake
some fishermen could not catch the large fish with small nets

22

What information did you learn about blackworms from your observations?

how they move
how they respond to touch
where they live

23

What observations helped you conclude that the dark end of the blackworm is the head?

The worm moved in that direction- leading body part

24

Based on your observations, in what type of environment do you think blackworms live?

extremely moist environments
shallow water at the edge of ponds or lakes
under leaves, rotting logs, etc

25

What are the six kingdoms of life?

Animals, plants, fungi, protists, bacteria, and archae

26

List the classification levels from the most general to the most specific.

kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species

27

List the three rules for scientific naming

first word is the genus, second is the species
genus is capitalized; species is lower case
both words are underlined or italicized

28

What are the advantages of using scientific names over common names?

common names can be misleading (catfish, ladybug, jellyfish, etc)
common names can be vague
universal language

29

A human and squirrel share the same class; a squirrel and mouse share the same order. Which two share the most similarities?

squirrel and mouse

30

When classifying the strange organisms (kiwi, platypus, etc) why did some appear to fit into two or more classes?

Not every species within a class have every defining characteristic of that class

31

What factors might affect the size of a population of organisms?

food supply; predators; competing species; space; pollution

32

From your graph you know that data on zebra mussel population was not collected every year. What might prevent the collection of data every year?

expense
time
conditions of the lake

33

Why do organisms need food?

Provides energy for daily activities; provides nutrients for growth

34

How do animals use energy?

running, swimming, flying, etc.
Maintaining body temperature, digesting food, heart muscles contractions, etc.

35

What did you learn about the diet of owls from investigating an owl pellet (list three)?

animals that owls eat (small rodents, like voles)
how much owls eat (based on the number of skulls/found)
approximate size of the animal the owl ate (based on leg bones, etc.)

36

Why are producers such as plants, an essential part of any ecosystem?

producers form the base of the food web.

37

How do you identify the producers, consumers and decomposers in a food web?

producers make their own food; consumers eat other organisms for food; decomposers consume dead/decaying material

38

List three impacts that zebra mussels can have in an ecosystem.

the populations of some types of phytoplankton have decreased by 80%
Decrease zooplankton population and fish that rely on them
Make the water clearer by consuming plankton... sunlight can reach deeper parts of the lake/pond

39

Why are organisms like nematodes important in soil ecosystems?

they are decomposers- consume dead/decaying material and recycle nutrients to the soil.

40

List three examples of organisms that are decomposers.

worms, bacteria, insects, and fungi

41

What would happen if something killed most of the bacteria and other decomposers in a lake ecosystem?

Dead animal/plant material and waste would build up.

42

List the inputs and outputs in photosynthesis.

inputs- water, sunlight, carbon dioxide
outputs- oxygen and sugar

43

Why is sunlight necessary for photosynthesis?

provides energy

44

What does BTB indicate?

presence of carbon dioxide

45

What was the initial color in the vial with BTB?

yellow

46

What was the initial color in the vial with BTB and elodea?

yellow

47

What would you expect to be the final color in the vial with BTB? Why?

yellow, the level of carbon dioxide isn't changing

48

What would you expect to be the final color in the vial with BTB and elodea? Why?

blue; the level of carbon dioxide should decrease because the elodea uses it for photosynthesis

49

What was the purpose of the vial with BTB alone?

to be a control

50

Explain how water gets from the soil to a plant's leaves

absorbed by the roots and transported through xylem

51

How does water vapor, carbon dioxide, and oxygen enter and exit a plant?

stomates (pores in the leaf)

52

List three structures that are unique to plant cells and explain how they are important in photosynthesis

cell wall- supports and stiffens the cell
vacuole-stores water
chloroplasts- absorb sunlight; house reactions of photosynthesis

53

What is the difference between a population and a community?

population- a group of individuals of one species living in an area
community- populations of diverse organisms living in an area

54

Why is it important that many different populations live in an area?

if a change occurs in a community with many populations, the chance that some of those populations will survive is good.

55

Pollution threatens our freshwater biomes. LIst three ways this can impact humans.

less drinking water
can kill organisms that we many eat
producers may be killed, resulting in less oxygen

56

Identify two living factors that can affect carrying capacity.

prey (food supply)
predators
competing species

57

Identify two non-living factors that can affect carrying capacity

space
oxygen
sunlight
water

58

ONly a small fraction of species that are introduced are successful enough to create problems in their new environment. What features of a species do you think make it likely to be successful in a new environment (list three)?

reproduce quickly
eat a variety of food
lack of natural predators

59

How do you think the number of introduced species in the US will change over the next 50 years?

opinion... just support it.