Flashcards in 7-Science-Ecology-Final Test Deck (59):
study of relationships between living things and the environment
a non-native plant, animal, or other organism that is introduced to a new environment deliberately or accidentally
a group of individuals of one species living in an area (lake, PA, etc)
a diagram that models the feeding relationships within an ecosystem
organisms that make their own food; form the base of the food web
organisms that get energy by eating food (producers and/or other consumers)
consumer that eats producers (plants)
consumer that eats other consumers (animals)
consumer that eats both plants and animals
consumes dead/decaying organisms and/or waste
process in which plants use sunlight as energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into food (sugars) (also produces "waste product" of Oxygen)
tubes that move water throughout a plant
pores/holes in a leaf that allow water vapor, carbon dioxide, and oxygen to move in and out of the leaf
support and stiffen the cells
absorbs light; house reactions of photosynthesis
the interaction of climate, geography, and plant/animal life
the maximum poplation of a species that can be supported by its environment
List three ways that introduced species can impact humans and the environment:
can change an entire ecosystem
can crowd out or replace native species that are beneficial
can damage human enterprise (agriculture, forestry, fisheries), costing billions of dollars
can threaten human health
List three reasons why the introduction of Nile Perch to Lake Victoria was helpful.
increased total catch of fish
increased number of fishermen
brought more money to the African contries surrounding the lake
List three reasons why the introduction of Nile Perch to Lake Victoria was harmful:
caused the extinction of as many as 200 cichlid species
caused an increase in algae- dead zones in lake
some fishermen could not catch the large fish with small nets
What information did you learn about blackworms from your observations?
how they move
how they respond to touch
where they live
What observations helped you conclude that the dark end of the blackworm is the head?
The worm moved in that direction- leading body part
Based on your observations, in what type of environment do you think blackworms live?
extremely moist environments
shallow water at the edge of ponds or lakes
under leaves, rotting logs, etc
What are the six kingdoms of life?
Animals, plants, fungi, protists, bacteria, and archae
List the classification levels from the most general to the most specific.
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
List the three rules for scientific naming
first word is the genus, second is the species
genus is capitalized; species is lower case
both words are underlined or italicized
What are the advantages of using scientific names over common names?
common names can be misleading (catfish, ladybug, jellyfish, etc)
common names can be vague
A human and squirrel share the same class; a squirrel and mouse share the same order. Which two share the most similarities?
squirrel and mouse
When classifying the strange organisms (kiwi, platypus, etc) why did some appear to fit into two or more classes?
Not every species within a class have every defining characteristic of that class
What factors might affect the size of a population of organisms?
food supply; predators; competing species; space; pollution
From your graph you know that data on zebra mussel population was not collected every year. What might prevent the collection of data every year?
conditions of the lake
Why do organisms need food?
Provides energy for daily activities; provides nutrients for growth
How do animals use energy?
running, swimming, flying, etc.
Maintaining body temperature, digesting food, heart muscles contractions, etc.
What did you learn about the diet of owls from investigating an owl pellet (list three)?
animals that owls eat (small rodents, like voles)
how much owls eat (based on the number of skulls/found)
approximate size of the animal the owl ate (based on leg bones, etc.)
Why are producers such as plants, an essential part of any ecosystem?
producers form the base of the food web.
How do you identify the producers, consumers and decomposers in a food web?
producers make their own food; consumers eat other organisms for food; decomposers consume dead/decaying material
List three impacts that zebra mussels can have in an ecosystem.
the populations of some types of phytoplankton have decreased by 80%
Decrease zooplankton population and fish that rely on them
Make the water clearer by consuming plankton... sunlight can reach deeper parts of the lake/pond
Why are organisms like nematodes important in soil ecosystems?
they are decomposers- consume dead/decaying material and recycle nutrients to the soil.
List three examples of organisms that are decomposers.
worms, bacteria, insects, and fungi
What would happen if something killed most of the bacteria and other decomposers in a lake ecosystem?
Dead animal/plant material and waste would build up.
List the inputs and outputs in photosynthesis.
inputs- water, sunlight, carbon dioxide
outputs- oxygen and sugar
Why is sunlight necessary for photosynthesis?
What does BTB indicate?
presence of carbon dioxide
What was the initial color in the vial with BTB?
What was the initial color in the vial with BTB and elodea?
What would you expect to be the final color in the vial with BTB? Why?
yellow, the level of carbon dioxide isn't changing
What would you expect to be the final color in the vial with BTB and elodea? Why?
blue; the level of carbon dioxide should decrease because the elodea uses it for photosynthesis
What was the purpose of the vial with BTB alone?
to be a control
Explain how water gets from the soil to a plant's leaves
absorbed by the roots and transported through xylem
How does water vapor, carbon dioxide, and oxygen enter and exit a plant?
stomates (pores in the leaf)
List three structures that are unique to plant cells and explain how they are important in photosynthesis
cell wall- supports and stiffens the cell
chloroplasts- absorb sunlight; house reactions of photosynthesis
What is the difference between a population and a community?
population- a group of individuals of one species living in an area
community- populations of diverse organisms living in an area
Why is it important that many different populations live in an area?
if a change occurs in a community with many populations, the chance that some of those populations will survive is good.
Pollution threatens our freshwater biomes. LIst three ways this can impact humans.
less drinking water
can kill organisms that we many eat
producers may be killed, resulting in less oxygen
Identify two living factors that can affect carrying capacity.
prey (food supply)
Identify two non-living factors that can affect carrying capacity
ONly a small fraction of species that are introduced are successful enough to create problems in their new environment. What features of a species do you think make it likely to be successful in a new environment (list three)?
eat a variety of food
lack of natural predators