7-Science-Genetics Quiz-StudyGuide1 Flashcards Preview

Katie 7th Grade > 7-Science-Genetics Quiz-StudyGuide1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 7-Science-Genetics Quiz-StudyGuide1 Deck (38):
1

Trait

characteristic of an organism

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Inherited trait

trait that is passed down from parents to offspring

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acquired trait

a trait that is obtained or acquired during someone's lifetime

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asexual reproduction

one parent, creates clones (except mutations)

5

sexual reproduction

two parents, sperm and egg, genetic diversity

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mutation

random change in DNA

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fertilization

union of sperm and egg during sexual reproduction

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breeding

deliberate breeding of two organisms

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allele

a version of a gene, two passed down per trait

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dominant

gene that will be expressed if present

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recessive

gene that will be masked if paired with a dominant gene

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homozygous

genotype with two of the same alleles

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heterozygous

genotype with two different alleles

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genotype

combination of two alleles

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phenotype

physical trait that is expressed

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Traits can be influenced by genes and the...

environment

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two examples of traits:

at least two: hair or skin or eye color, muscles or a tan or a scar

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With a larger sample size, variations...

increase with the amount of unique organisms

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Three advantages of studying plants or other simple organisms for heredity instead of humans are...

at least three: short generation time; produce many offspring; easy to obtain and maintain; many observable traits; more ethical

20

Marfan syndrome affects the body's...

connective tissue

21

Some signs of Marfan syndrome are...

a long face, near sight, tall, curved spine or chest bone, thin, disproportionately long limbs, loose or double joints

22

Marfan syndrome can/cannot be fought from another person because...

the syndrome is genetic, not infectious, and therefore can't be spread to another person, except to offspring

23

Marfan syndrome is caused by...

a single gene change in chromosome 15

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Advantages of asexual reproduction are...

that it is quicker and more efficient than sexual reproduction
that it doesn't require a mate

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Disadvantages of asexual reproduction are...

a lack of genetic variation

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Advantages of sexual reproduction are...

that it provides genetic variation (offspring is never identical to parent).

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Disadvantages of sexual reproduction are...

that it requires a mate
that it is slower and less efficient than asexual reproduction

28

Examples of asexual reproduction in multicellular organisms are...

at least two: Hydras- budding; Geraniums- cuttings; strawberries- runners; starfish- regeneration

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What can cause offspring of asexual reproduction to have a trait different from the parent?

a mutation

30

Identical are more similar than fraternal twins because...

Identical twins are from one zygote that split (identical DNA)
Fraternal twins are from two different zygotes (as similar as normal siblings)

31

Breeding is preformed to...

produce desired traits
increase an endangered population (maintain a species)
study genetics

32

The Rules of Inheritance are...

offspring receives equal DNA from both parents
offspring gets one gene per characteristic per parent
some genes are dominant and will be expressed

33

How could a recessive trait appear in 25% of the offspring when both parents have the dominant trait?

in this case, the parents must have been heterozygous for the dominant trait, meaning that there would be a 25% change for a offspring to get a recessive allele from both parents.

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Blue tail color is dominant to orange tail color, which means...

Blue tail color will be expressed if the allele for it is present

35

In the breeding model between two heterozygous parents, the offspring or results were not exactly 3:1 because...

our sample size was too small

36

Mendel studied more than one characteristic in pea plants to...

make sure that his rules applied to all situations

37

What are the traits for pea seed color?
A good set of letters for the alleles would be...
Because...

Green and Yellow
Y and y
Yellow is dominant

38

Offspring cannot have a recessive trait if one parent is homozygous for a dominant trait because...

every offspring would get at least one dominant allele from that parent