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Ch 7 - Chemistry > 7.2A > Flashcards

Flashcards in 7.2A Deck (46)
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1

What does PH stand for

Potential hydrogen

2

What does pH measure

Whether a substance is acidic, neutral or alkaline

3

What does a solution need to have in order to be acidic or alkaline

Water

4

What does it mean for something to be acidic

There are more positive hydrogen ions the negative ions

5

What does it mean for something to be alkaline

There are more negative hydroxide ions.
This is sometimes referred to as base

6

What is the symbol for hydrogen ions

H+

7

What is the symbol for hydroxide ions

OH-

8

In the PH measurement scale which numbers are acidic and which numbers are alkaline

Numbers below seven or acidic
Numbers above seven or alkaline
Seven is neutral

9

What is the difference between pH balanced an acid balanced

PH balanced means that it is balanced at a certain level but not necessarily 4.5 to 5.5

Acid balance is when the pH is balanced with in the acid range of 4.5 to 5.5

10

What is pure distilled waters pH

7

11

What makes water hard water

Hard water may contain salt such as calcium and magnesium

12

What makes water soft water

Soft water contains very few minerals

13

What are the nine types of product categories

Solution
Suspension
Stick
Aerosol
Emulsion
Gel
Mixture
Ointment
Powder

14

What is a mixture

When two or more compounds are blended together physically rather than chemically

15

What is a solution

A mixture of two or more chemicals in which each component is evenly disbursed into the mixture to form a complete and homogenous dispersion

16

What is a solvent

The liquid part of a solution

17

What is a solute

The solid or dissolved part of a solution

18

What are the only substances not soluble in water

Organic

19

What are the two types of solvents

Miscible solvents and immiscible solvents

20

Miscible solvents

Mix easily together

21

What are immiscible solvents

Solvents that don’t mix easily together

Example oil and water

22

What is a suspension

Even dispersion of a solid substance in a liquid base

23

What is gel

Product that has been formulated with a thickening agent to increase its viscosity

24

What is powder

Finally ground solid mixed evenly with additional ingredients

25

What is ointment

And anhydrous substance based on a mixture of oils and waxes, normally having the texture of a paste

26

What does anhydrous mean

Without water

27

What is a stick

A hard, low level water or anhydrous product applied to the skin by rubbing the product directly on the desired area

28

What is an aerosol

A product packaged under pressure and blended with a propellant inside a container which is usually a can

29

What is an emulsion

A mixture of two or more immiscible substances United by small droplets of a binder or a gum like substance

30

What is an emulsifier

Binding substances to slow down the destruction of the product

31

What type of molecules are used in the manufacturing of emulsions

Long molecules with a polar and and nonpolar end

32

What does it mean to be a polar and in a molecule

Positively or negatively charged

33

What is a non-polar end

Neutrally charged

34

What is viscosity

The thickness of the product

35

What are the eight types of product profiles

Cream
Leave on
Rinse off
Wipe off
Facial
All skin types
Dirty skin
Dry skin

36

What does INCI stand for

International nomenclature for cosmetic ingredients

37

What are humectants

Organic ingredients that bind water and deposit it onto the skin

38

What are emollients

Oils and oil soluble substances used to condition and soften the skin by providing a protective lipid coding

39

What is the protective coating called that emollient provide

Occlusive barrier

40

What does occlusive mean

Thickening or sealing

41

What is the general concentration range for emollients

Between 2% and 10%

42

What are fatty acids

Lubricants that come from both plant and animal sources

43

What are three examples of fatty acids

Caprylic acid
Oleic
Stearic acid

44

What are fatty alcohols

Acids that have been exposed to hydrogen

45

What do fatty alcohols do

Increase the thickness and provide moisturizing properties

46

What are four examples of fatty alcohols

Cetyl alcohol
Cetearyl alcohol
Oleyl alcohol
Stearyl alcohol