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Flashcards in 767 Lexicon Deck (95)
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1

Continuous variable

no breaks between data (time, weight, etc.)

2

Discrete variable

Breaks between data (children, cars, etc.)

3

Between subjects

independent samples design. Samples unrelated to one another (e.g. IQ of men and women of this class)

4

Within subjects

dependent samples / correlated samples. could be repeated measures. could also be paired data (e.g. couples, romantic, client-counselor, members on one team vs. members on the other).

5

Multivariate

Focus on multiple dependent variables - even if only one independent variable

6

Univariate

Focus on one dependent variable - singular dependent measure - simple Algebra

7

Data

* research results from which inferences are drawn
* Usually numerical
* Can also be newspaper and magazine articles, biographical materials, diaries, and so on. Verbal materials

8

Analysis

* categorizing, ordering, manipulating, and summarizing of data to obtain answers to research questions
* reduce data to intelligible and interpretable form

9

Interpretation

* based on analysis, makes inferences pertinent to the research, relations studied, and draws conclusions about the relations
* relations within the research study
* almost automatic with analysis
* broader meaning of research data is sought
* link to theory and other findings.
* examine congruence or lack of congruence


10

Statistics

* theory and method of analyzing quantitative data obtained from samples of observations in order to study and compare sources of variance of phenomena
* make decisions to accept or reject the hypothesized relations between the phenomena
* aid in drawing reliable inferences from empirical observations

11

Statistic

a measure calculated from a sample

12

Parameter

a population value

13

Multiple regression

analyzes the common and separate influences of two or more independent variables on a dependent variable

14

Canonical correlation

* logical extension of multiple regression
* adds more than one dependent variable to the multiple regression model
* handles relations between sets of independent variables and sets of dependent variables

15

discriminant analysis

discriminate groups from one another on the basis of sets of measures

16

factor analysis

* different in kind and purpose from other multivariate methods
* help researcher discover and identify the unities or dimensions, called factors, behind many measures

17

Path analysis

*graphic method of studying the presumed direct and indirect influences of independent variables on each other and on dependent variables
* method of portraying and testing theories
* requires researchers to make explicit the theoretical framework of research problems

18

Analysis of covariance structures

* the ultimate approach to the analysis of complex data structures
* the analysis of the varying together of variables that are in structure dictated by theory
*Also called causal modeling and structural equation models

19

Index

* an observable phenomenon that is substituted for a less-observable phenomenon (e.g. a thermometer gives readings of numbers that represent degrees of temperature)
* number that is a composite of two or more numbers (means, medians, coefficients of correlations)

19

MAXMINCON

* Maximize experimental relations and effects
* Minimize error variance
* Control extraneous event and variables

20

Theory

* An abstraction, not reality
* Best available explanation of a phenomenon at some point in time
* Not static. You can never prove a theory. Only disprove it.
* Set of propositions defined by interrelated constructs
* Nature of interrelations
* Are these relationships directional? Does one moderate another
* Explain phenomenon.
* If we can explain it, we can predict it.
* Case conceptualizations are small theories. Micro theories

21

Science

* Systematic, planned, controlled, empirical, critical investigation into phenomenon.
* Guided by hypothesis and theories about relation between constructs.
* Ideally, a self-correcting, evolutionary process.

22

Stocastic

Probabilistic

23

Deductive reasoning

You have known truths and laws and move from theories to data

24

Inductive reasoning

You do not have known truths and build theory from data

25

Level of discourse

A set that contains all the objects that enter discussion

26

Frequency distribution

1. Primarily for descriptive purposes 2. Observed distributions can be compared to theoretical distributions (e.g. normal)

27

Profile analysis

Compare profiles of scores where all scores have been converted into same unit

28

Theory of errors

Given enough chance errors, they will distribute into a normal curve

29

Standard error of the mean

Standard deviation of an infinite number of means. Measure of chance or error in its effect on one measure of central tendency