Flashcards in 767 Lexicon Deck (95)

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1

## Continuous variable

### no breaks between data (time, weight, etc.)

2

## Discrete variable

### Breaks between data (children, cars, etc.)

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## Between subjects

### independent samples design. Samples unrelated to one another (e.g. IQ of men and women of this class)

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## Within subjects

### dependent samples / correlated samples. could be repeated measures. could also be paired data (e.g. couples, romantic, client-counselor, members on one team vs. members on the other).

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## Multivariate

### Focus on multiple dependent variables - even if only one independent variable

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## Univariate

### Focus on one dependent variable - singular dependent measure - simple Algebra

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## Data

###
* research results from which inferences are drawn

* Usually numerical

* Can also be newspaper and magazine articles, biographical materials, diaries, and so on. Verbal materials

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## Analysis

###
* categorizing, ordering, manipulating, and summarizing of data to obtain answers to research questions

* reduce data to intelligible and interpretable form

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## Interpretation

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* based on analysis, makes inferences pertinent to the research, relations studied, and draws conclusions about the relations

* relations within the research study

* almost automatic with analysis

* broader meaning of research data is sought

* link to theory and other findings.

* examine congruence or lack of congruence

10

## Statistics

###
* theory and method of analyzing quantitative data obtained from samples of observations in order to study and compare sources of variance of phenomena

* make decisions to accept or reject the hypothesized relations between the phenomena

* aid in drawing reliable inferences from empirical observations

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## Statistic

### a measure calculated from a sample

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## Parameter

### a population value

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## Multiple regression

### analyzes the common and separate influences of two or more independent variables on a dependent variable

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## Canonical correlation

###
* logical extension of multiple regression

* adds more than one dependent variable to the multiple regression model

* handles relations between sets of independent variables and sets of dependent variables

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##
discriminant analysis

### discriminate groups from one another on the basis of sets of measures

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## factor analysis

###
* different in kind and purpose from other multivariate methods

* help researcher discover and identify the unities or dimensions, called factors, behind many measures

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## Path analysis

###
*graphic method of studying the presumed direct and indirect influences of independent variables on each other and on dependent variables

* method of portraying and testing theories

* requires researchers to make explicit the theoretical framework of research problems

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## Analysis of covariance structures

###
* the ultimate approach to the analysis of complex data structures

* the analysis of the varying together of variables that are in structure dictated by theory

*Also called causal modeling and structural equation models

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## Index

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* an observable phenomenon that is substituted for a less-observable phenomenon (e.g. a thermometer gives readings of numbers that represent degrees of temperature)

* number that is a composite of two or more numbers (means, medians, coefficients of correlations)

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## MAXMINCON

###
* Maximize experimental relations and effects

* Minimize error variance

* Control extraneous event and variables

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## Theory

###
* An abstraction, not reality

* Best available explanation of a phenomenon at some point in time

* Not static. You can never prove a theory. Only disprove it.

* Set of propositions defined by interrelated constructs

* Nature of interrelations

* Are these relationships directional? Does one moderate another

* Explain phenomenon.

* If we can explain it, we can predict it.

* Case conceptualizations are small theories. Micro theories

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## Science

###
* Systematic, planned, controlled, empirical, critical investigation into phenomenon.

* Guided by hypothesis and theories about relation between constructs.

* Ideally, a self-correcting, evolutionary process.

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## Stocastic

### Probabilistic

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## Deductive reasoning

### You have known truths and laws and move from theories to data

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## Inductive reasoning

### You do not have known truths and build theory from data

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## Level of discourse

### A set that contains all the objects that enter discussion

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## Frequency distribution

### 1. Primarily for descriptive purposes 2. Observed distributions can be compared to theoretical distributions (e.g. normal)

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## Profile analysis

### Compare profiles of scores where all scores have been converted into same unit

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## Theory of errors

### Given enough chance errors, they will distribute into a normal curve

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