Biopsych Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

1. Psychology > Biopsych Vocabulary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biopsych Vocabulary Deck (106)
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1

Dualism

The belief that the body is physical but the mind (or soul) is not

2

Monism

The belief that the world consists only of matter and energy and that the mind is a phenomenon produced by the workings of the nervous system

3

Blindsight

The ability of a person who cannot see objects in his or her blind field to accurately reach for them while remaining unconscious of perceiving them
Caused by damage to the "mammalian" visual system of the brain

4

Corpus callosum

The largest commissure of the brain, interconnecting the areas of neocortex on each side of the brain

5

Split-brain operation

Brain surgery that is occasionally performed to treat a form of epilepsy; the surgeon cuts the corpus callosum, which connects the two hemispheres of the brain.

6

Cerebral hemispheres

The two symmetrical halves of the brain

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Unilateral neglect

A syndrome in which people ignore objects located toward their left and the left sides of objects located anywhere; most often caused by damage to the right parietal lobe

8

Generalization

A type of scientific explanation; a general conclusion based on many observations of similar phenomenon

9

Reduction

A type of scientific explanation; a phenomenon is described in terms of the more elementary processes that underlie it

10

Reflex

An automatic, stereotyped movement that is produced as the direct result of a stimulus

11

Model

A mathematical or physical analogy for a physiological process

12

Doctrine of specific nerve energies

Muller's conclusion that because all nerve fibers carry the same type of message sensory information must be specified by the particular nerve fibers that are active

13

Experimental ablation

The research method in which the function of a part of the brain is inferred by observing the behaviors an animal can no longer perform after that part is damaged

14

Functionalism

The principle that the best way to understand a biological phenomenon is to try to understand its useful functions for the organism

15

Natural selection

The process by which inherited traits that confer a selective advantage become more prevalent in a population.

16

Mutation

A change in the genetic information contained in the chromosomes of sperm or eggs which can be passed on to an organism's offspring; provide genetic variability

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Selective advantage

A characteristic of an organism that permits it to produce more than the average number of offspring of its species

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Evolution

A gradual change in the structure and physiology of plant and animal species-- generally producing more complex organisms--as a result of natural selection

19

Neoteny

A slowing of the process of maturation, allowing more time for growth; an important factor in the development of large brains

20

Behavioral neuroscientists

A scientist who studies the physiology of behavior, primarily by performing physiological and behavioral experiments with lab animals.

21

Sensory neurons

Neurons that detect changes in the external or internal environment and sends information about these changes to the central nervous system

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Motor neuron

A neuron located within the central nervous system that controls the contraction of a muscle or the secretion of a gland

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Interneuron

A neuron located entirely within the central nervous system

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Central nervous system

The brain and spinal cord

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Peripheral nervous system

The part of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord, including the nerves attached to the brain and spinal cord.

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Soma

Cell body of a neuron which contains the nucleus

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Dendrite

A branched, treelike structure attached to the soma of a neuron; receives information from the terminal buttons of other neurons

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Synapse

A junction between the terminal button of an axon and the membrane of another neuron

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Axon

The long, thin, cylindrical structure that conveys information from the soma of a neuron to its terminal buttons

30

Multipolar neuron

A neuron with one axon and many dendrites attached to its soma