Behavioral Research Flashcards Preview

1. Psychology > Behavioral Research > Flashcards

Flashcards in Behavioral Research Deck (28)
Loading flashcards...
1

Constitutive definition

Defines a construct using other constructs (e.g weight is the heaviness of an object)

2

Operational definition

Assigns meaning to a construct or variable by specifying activities or operations necessary to measure it and evaluate measurement

3

Two kinds of operational definitions

1. Measured
2. Experimental

4

Measured operational definition

Describes how a variable will be measured

5

Experimental operational definition

Spells out details of investigator's manipulations

6

Orthogonal axes

Two axes at right angle to each other

7

Abscissa

X axis

8

Ordinate

Y axis

9

Stimulus variable

Any condition or manipulation by the experiment of the environment that evokes a response in an organism.

10

Response variable

Any kind of behavior of the organism. For any behavior, there is a stimulus, so the behavior is the response.

11

R = f(O,S)

Responses are a function of the organism and stimuli. OR Response variables are a function of organismic variables and stimulus variables.

12

Organismic variable

Any property of an individual, any characteristic or attribute. Another name for attribute variable or subject-characteristic variable

13

Polytomy

A division of the members of a group into 3 or more subdivisions.

14

Polytomy

A division of the members of a group into 3 or more subdivisions.

15

Concept

An expression of an abstraction formed from generalization of particulars

16

Construct

A concept that has been formulated so that it can be used in science, defined that it can be observed and measured.

17

Variable

A property that can take on different values. A symbol to which values are assigned.

18

Constructs and words can be defined by

A. Other words or concepts.
B. Description of an implicit or explicit action or behavior

19

Active variable

Defined by manipulation. The experimenter has control over how the values change.

20

Attributive variable

Measured and cannot be manipulated. The experimenter has no control over the values of the variable.

21

Continuous variable

Capable of taking on an ordered set of values within a certain range.

22

Categorical variable

Can be assigned to a subclass or subset. Subclasses are distinct and non-overlapping. All objects put into the same category are considered to have the same characteristics.

23

Latent variable

Unobservable entities assumed to underlie observed variables

24

Intervening variables

Constructs that account for internal unobservable psychological processes that account for behavior. It cannot be seen but inferred from behavior.

25

Theory

1. An abstraction, not reality. Best available explanation of a phenomenon at some point in time. Not static. Disprovable but not provable.
2. A set of propositions defined by interrelated constructs.
3. Outlines the nature of those interrelations (directional, moderation, etc.)
4. Explains phenomenon (if we can explain it, we can predict it.)

26

Science

Systematic, planned, controlled, empirical, critical investigation into phenomenon guided by hypothesis and theories about relation between constructs. Ideally, it is a self-correcting, evolutionary process.

27

Is psychology inductive or deductive?

Inductive. We don't have laws. Build to broader, general theories.

28

What is the problem with inductive logic as the basis for psychology?

Error. All samples will have error. Great effort to identify and minimize error.