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Flashcards in Biopsych midterm Deck (116)
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What is the monistic view of the mind-body problem?

The mind is generated through the physical actions of the brain.

2

What is the mind-body problem?

1. asks about the nature of the mind and the body.
2. was originally posed by philosophers.
3. has not been solved.
4. usually involves deciding between a monistic or a dualistic view.

3

Blindsight suggests that some parts of the brain may play a special role in what system?

consciousness

4

How do humans compare with other animals with regards to the relation between brain size and body size?

Human brains are larger than other species when expressed relative to total body weight.

5

What type of neurons function to contract muscles?

Motor

6

What kind of metabolic rate do neurons have?

High

7

What are key functions of an astrocyte?

1. provide physical support of nerve cells.
2. provide nourishment to neurons.
3. clean up debris within the brain.
4. regulate the chemicals in the fluid surrounding neurons.

8

What is an important advantage associated with saltatory conduction?

Myelin speeds up the velocity at which an axon can conduct an action potential.

9

Communication of neural signals across the synapse involves

1. the opening of voltage-gated channels in the axon terminal.
2. voltage changes that open calcium channels in the presynaptic membrane.
3. vesicles that release transmitter molecules into the synapse.
4. the binding of transmitter at postsynaptic receptors triggering membrane potentials.

10

Autoreceptors are located on the ________ and detect ________ .

presynaptic membrane; the transmitter released by that neuron

11

The term "dorsum" means

Back

12

ventrum means

Belly

13

Assume that electrical stimulation of the right motor cortex elicits limb movements on the left side of the body. In this instance, we would describe this as a ________ organization of motor cortex and the muscles of the body.

contralateral

14

_______ consists of the pons and medulla oblongata.

Metencephalon

15

Neurogenesis in the adult brain is stimulated by

a learning experience.

16

What would be expected as a result of damage to the somatosensory association cortex?

Difficulty in naming an object the person can touch (but not see).

17

Damage to portions of the limbic cortex would be expected to alter

1. emotion.
2. the ability to recognize emotion in others.
3. long-term memory.
4. the ability to learn and retain new information

18

The structures that comprise the basal ganglia include the

1. putamen.
2. globus pallidus.
3. caudate nucleus

19

A function attributed to the cerebellum is the

coordination of motor movements.

20

The ________ comprise the autonomic nervous system.

sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions

21

________ refers to the capacity of a drug molecule to bind to a key site of action.

Affinity

22

What is true of the therapeutic index?

More caution is required for a drug with a low therapeutic index.

23

A drug that binds with a postsynaptic receptor, but does not open ion channels would be termed a(n)

direct antagonist.

24

Which transmitter is the primary excitatory transmitter in the brain?

glutamate

25

Which transmitter is the primary inhibitory transmitter in the brain?

GABA

26

What is important to know about acetylcholine (ACh)?

1. ACh was the first transmitter to be identified within the body.
2. ACh controls muscle movements,
3. ACh is released at the neuromuscular junction.
4. ACh is involved in the autonomic nervous system.

27

An ionotropic receptor produces a a postsynaptic potential that is

rapid and short in duration.

28

What is Serotonin synthesized from?

tryptophan

29

Glutamate, GABA, and glycine are important because these are

the most common neurotransmitters in the CNS.

30

What is important to know about stereotaxic surgery?

1. A stereotaxic instrument usually requires coordinates from a brain atlas.
2. The carrier arm can be manipulated in three dimensions.
3. The head holder is designed to fix the skull in a rigid position.
4. The stereotaxic instrument is useful for implanting electrodes or cannulae into brain