Flashcards in 8. Enzyme and Restriction Mapping Deck (14):
Examples of recombinant proteins and effect transgenic organisms produced from genetic engineering.
• Recombinant proteins
- Interferon ~ produced by cells that have been effected by viruses. These induce an anti-viral defence response in cells.
- G-CSF ~ Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. Given to patients that are undergoing radiotherapy. This stimulates the production of the cells that have died from the bone marrow and thus the cells that have died from the blood system, including haemological defence cells.
• Transgenic organisms
- Disease models ~ e.g. a mouse that mimic a particular human's disease
- Improved agricultural yields
What are nucleases? and what are the different types?
• Degrade nucleic acids by hydrolysing phosphodiester bonds
• There are 2 types:
1) Ribonuclease (RNase): degrade RNA
2) Deoxyribonuclease (DNase): degrade DNA. Can either be the following:
- Exonuclease: degrade from end of molecule
- Endonuclease: cleave within nucleotide chain
What do restriction endonucleases do? and why are they called restriction?
• They do 2 things:
1) Restriction enzymes recognise specific DNA sequences
2) Restriction enzymes catalyse the hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonds
• They are called restriction as they prevent a bacteria from being infected by viruses (phages)
• There are many different enzymes from different bacteria.
What are features of the recognition sites? and how often do they occur?
• They are 4-8 base pairs in length, (depending on the enzyme)
• They are palindromic
• A 4 base recognition sequence occurs every 4x4x4x4 = 256 bases
• A 6 base recognition sequence occurs every 4x4x4x4x4x4 = 4096 bases
What types of ends do nucleases produce?
• Leave an overhang
• Or a blunt end
What are restriction maps?
• They are maps of restriction sites within a molecule
• Crude way of mapping an unknown molecule
• Useful way of describing plasmids
How do you separate DNA fragments? and how is the size of the fragments determined?
• Separated by charge in the gel
• Fragments are placed in the well and a current is applied and the fragments will move towards the positive charge
• Smaller fragments run faster and lighter fragments run slower
• Compare the fragments with the DNA ladder
•More than one fragment = more than one enzyme cut the DNA fragment
How did the DNA sequence change to cause SCA? How did this change the restriction site?
Point substitution at position 6. Adenine was swapped with T, causing the AA glutamine to be swapped with valine. Caused a defective beta globin gene.
• Single nucleotide changes can create/destroy restriction enzyme sites - in this cases, the DdeI (name of the enzyme) site (5’CTNAG3’) is lost in SCA, and so this site cannot be cleaved.
What is a recombinant DNA molecule?
When DNA molecules from different sources are joined together by DNA ligase.
• DNA ligase makes coupling phosphodiester bonds between 2 different DNA fragments.
Why use a DNA polymerase when making a recombinant DNA fragment?
• PCR amplification
• Generation of probes.
• Overhangs may not be complementary so DNA pol will fill in the end of the overhang and form a blunt end, and not the 2 DNA fragments can be ligated.
What is phosphatase and where does it come from? and why should it be used for producing recombinant DNA?
• The enzyme remove the phosphate group from the 5’ end.
• Initially, this enzyme used to come from calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase - but now from shrimp alkaline phosphatase as it is easier and cheaper
• It prevents the resealing of cut plasmids - as DNA ligase needs the phosphate to form the phosphodiester bond.
What does a polynucleotide kinase do? and why should this be used for making a recombinant DNA?
• Kinase: phosphate from ATP to substrate
ATP + Substrate -> ADP + phosphorylated-substrate
• Polynucleotide kinase adds phosphate to 5’ hydroxyl group of DNA or RNA
• To phosphorylate chemically synthesized DNA so that it can be ligated to another fragment.
• To sensitively label DNA so that it can be traced
- radioactively labeled ATP added
- fluorescently labeled ATP added
Where are reverse transcriptase found? and what does it require to work?
• They are not found in eukaryotes - only expressed in retroviruses with their genome made of RNA
• It requires a primer on the mRNA template. - It is then able to add dNTPs and form a cDNA molecule.