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Flashcards in Quantitative Research Deck (23)
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1
Q

The Scientific Method

A
  1. defining the research question
  2. forming hypothesis
  3. testing the hypothesis
  4. drawing conclusions
  5. reporting your results
2
Q

Defining the research question

A

finding a question that you want to answer

3
Q

forming a hypothesis

A

finding a tentative answer/explanation to your research question
making an educated guess about the explanation for your observations

4
Q

testing your hypothesis

A

the method to testing will depend on the type of answer that you want to get
you might use surveys
you might use an experiment

5
Q

drawing conclusions

A

once you know the results of your hypothesis testing, you’ll know if your hypothesis was supported or not

6
Q

reporting your results

A

researchers need to know how you found the answers to your question inn order to find out if your study was reliable
in order to further research the topic
to add more knowledge to the topic
and maybe to replicate the study in order to see if they would get the same results

7
Q

descriptive methods

A

naturalistic observation
laboratory observation
case studies
surveys

8
Q

naturalistic observation

A

the best way to understand the behaviour of a group of people may be to watch them in their normal environment

advantages:
allows researchers to get a realistic picture of how behaviour occurs because they are actually watching the behaviour

disadvantages:
observer bias
environment = too unique and not able to be replicated

9
Q

observer bias

A

expectations of what is going to happen causes them to manipulate what they see support their hypothesis

10
Q

laboratory observation

A

advantages:
sometimes observation is far more practical in a laboratory
more equipment
a great deal of control over the situation

disadvantage:
artificial setting may cause artificial behaviour

11
Q

case studies

A

one individual is studied in great detail
researchers try to learn everything they can about this individual

advantages:
tremendous amount of detail may be the only way to get certain information
good ways to study rare conditions

disadvantages:
same results cannot be applied to similar people
people are too complicated to be predictable
vulnerable to observer bias

12
Q

surveys

A

advantages:
ability to elicit private information
researchers can obtain a tremendous amount of data on a very large group of people

disadvantages:
people do not always give accurate answers
courtesy bias - people answer what they think is socially correct
people may misunderstand pr misinterpret questions

13
Q

correlation

A

the measurement of the relationship between 2 variables

correlation coefficient = strength of the relationship

14
Q

experimental studies

A
  1. selection
  2. variables
  3. the groups
  4. the importance of randomisation
15
Q

step 1: selection

A

researchers would decide on the type of people that they want to interview (children, women, students)
best selection = random selection

16
Q

step 2: the variables

A

researcher needs to decide what variable they want to manipulate inn order to measure the changes
the variable that will be manipulated will always be the independent variable
the dependent variable is the variable that’s change will be measured after the independent variable is manipulated

17
Q

step 3: the groups

A

controlling for confounding variables
best way to do this is to have a control group
the experimental group would be exposed to the independent variable whereas the control group won’t be

18
Q

step 4: the importance of randomisation

A

random assignment is the best way to ensure control over other interfering or extraneous variables
random assignment means that each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to each condition

19
Q

experimental hazards

A

placebo effect

experimenter effect

20
Q

placebo effect

A

the expectations and biases of the participants can influence their behaviour

21
Q

experimenter effect

A

the expectations of the experimenter can influence the behaviour of the participants

22
Q

single blind studies

A

participants would not know whether they have been exposed to the independent variable or the placebo and therefore have fewer expectations of an outcome

23
Q

double blind studies

A

neither the experimenter or the participants know whether the participants are getting a placebo or not and therefore there are no expectations for either side