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Flashcards in Consciousness Deck (41)
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1
Q

What is consciousness

A

Your awareness of everything that is going on around you and inside your head at any given moment.
Includes thoughts
sensations
feelings

2
Q

What is an altered state of consciousness

A

occurs when a shift takes place in the quantity or pattern of your mental activity

3
Q

different types of altered forms of consciousness

A

under the influence of drugs, daydreaming, hypnosis, meditation, sleep

4
Q

circadian rhythm

A

sleep-wake cycle controlled by the hypothalamus
deep in the hypothalamus lies a structure called the suprachiasmatic nucleus
the SCN is sensitive to light and tells the pineal gland to release melatonin when its dark, and to stop releasing it when it gets light

5
Q

sleep deprivation

A
loss of sleep
decreases mental and physical functioning
associated with angina
depression
arthritis
sleep problems
and chronic lung disease
6
Q

Sleep Stages

A

Beta - alert
Alpha - relaxed
Theta - light sleep (N1)
Delta - deep sleep

7
Q

sleep stage 1: N1

A
Light sleep 
theta waves
hallucinations
hypnic jerk
falling sensation
8
Q

sleep stage 2: N2

A

Sleep spindles
body temp + heart rate drops
breathing = shallow + irregular
theta waves = predominant

9
Q

Sleep stage 3 and 4: N3

A

Delta waves - deep sleep
slowest and largest brain waves
growth hormones released
children spend more time in deep sleep for growth purposes

10
Q

REM

A
body temperature increases
heart beats faster
rapid eye movement
90% of dreaming takes place here
sleep paralysis
11
Q

purpose of REM + deep sleep

A

REM = process emotions

deep sleep = body recovery

12
Q

sleep disorders

A
Nightmares
night terrors
somnambulism
insomnia
sleep apnoea
narcolepsy
13
Q

Somnambulism

A

sleepwalking

occurs in N3 deep sleep

14
Q

Insomnia

A

symptoms - difficulty falling/staying asleep
causes - stress, anxiety, diet, behaviour
treatment - drug therapies

15
Q

Sleep Apnoea

A

occurs whe breathinng passages get blocked
loud snoring
breathing stops for nearly 10 seconds or more
disturbs sleep
causes heart problems
associated with obesity in men

16
Q

narcolepsy

A

a kind of sleep seizure

person slips into REM sleep throughout the day at inappropriate times or places

17
Q

Stimulants

A

amphetamines (speed, ritalin, meth)
cocaine
nicotine
caffeine

18
Q

effects of stimulants

A

stimulation

excitement

19
Q

effects of amphetamines

A

addiction
stroke
fatal heart problems
psychosis

20
Q

effects of cocaine

A

addiction
stroke
fatal heart problems
psychosis

21
Q

effects of nicotine

A

addiction

cancer

22
Q

effects of caffeine

A

addiction

high blood pressure

23
Q

depressants

A

barbituates (major tranquilisers)
benzodiazepines (minor tranquilisers)
alcohol
narcotics (opioids)

24
Q

effects of depressants

A

relaxation

25
Q

effects of barbituates

A

addiction
brain damage
death

26
Q

effects of benzodiazepines

A

low risk of overdose

addiction

27
Q

effects of alcohol

A
alcoholism
health problems
depression
increased risk of accidents
death
28
Q

effects of narcotics

A

euphoria
addiction
death

29
Q

hallucinogens

A

LSD
PCP
MDMA
Marijuana

30
Q

effects of hallucinogens

A
possible permanent memory problems
bad trips
suicide
overdose
death
31
Q

psychoactive drugs

A

chemical substances that alter thinking, perception and memory
could lead to dependence/overdose
could pose a threat to health
may lead to death

32
Q

physical dependence

A

causes drug user’s body to crave the drug
after the use of the drug for some time, the body becomes unable to function normally without the drug
the person is then said to be addicted or dependent

33
Q

drug tolerance

A

a symptom of drug dependence
as the person continues to take the drug, larger and larger doses of the drug are required to achieve the initial effects of the drug

34
Q

withdrawal

A
a symptom of physical dependence
happens when the drug user is deprived of the drug
symptoms:
headaches
nausea
irritability
severe pain
cramping
shaking
elevated blood pressure
negative reinforcement
35
Q

psychological dependence

A

the belief that the use of a certain drug is needed in order to achieve a certain level of emotional/psychological wellbeing
positive reinforcement

36
Q

Freud’s interpretation of dreams

A

believed dreams to be a sort of wish fulfilment of his clients
believed dreams were symbolic meanings for innate desires

37
Q

biology of dreams

A

PET scans showed that dreams are products of activity in the pons
this lower area of the brain inhibits neurotransmitters that cause movement
this stops people from acting out their dreams

38
Q

the activation-synthesis hypothesis

A

dreaming is a kind of thinking that happens during sleep
higher centres of the cortex make sense of this thinking by creating a story to explain the cortical activation coming from the brain stem

39
Q

the activation-information model (AIM)

A

the brain is making up a dream to explain its own activation

40
Q

hypnosis

A

a state of consciousness where a person is highly susceptible to suggestion

41
Q

what hypnosis can do

A

create amnesia for a brief time
remove conscious attention from pain (relieve pain)
alter sensory perceptions (hearing, smell, taste)
help people relax in typically stressful situations