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Flashcards in Motivation Deck (23)
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1
Q

motivation

A

the process by which activities are started, directed and continued so that physical or psychological needs or wants are met
a person’s drive

2
Q

intrinsic motivation

A

the type of motivation in which a person performs an action because the act itself is rewarding or satisfying

3
Q

extrinsic motivation

A

people perform Ann action because it leads to some sort of outcome that is separate from the person

4
Q

instincts and evolutionary approach

A

William McDougall proposed that motivation is biologically determined
Clark Hull’s drive-reduction theory

5
Q

drive-reduction theory

A

Clark Hull
involved concepts of need, drives and homeostasis
homeostasis = tendency of the body to maintain an equilibrium
need = requirement for some material essential for survival
drive = need causes psychological tension which motivates an organism to fulfil the need

describes connection between internal physiological states and outward behaviour

primary drive - food, water
secondary drive - money, clothes, social approval

6
Q

Approaches based on psychological needs

A

Mcclelland’s theory: affiliation, power and achievement needs
Carol Dweck’s self-theory of motivation

7
Q

Mcclelland’s theory

A

Affiliation, power and achievement needs theory
proposed a theory that highlights the importance of those 3 important psychological needs
nAff - people way to be liked by others and held in a high regard
nPow - want to have influence over others
nAch - strong desire to succeed in attaining goals, not only realistic ones but also challenging ones

8
Q

Arousal theory

A

highlight the need for stimulation

arousal theory - people have an optimal level of tension

9
Q

incentive approaches

A

behaviour is explained in terms of the external stimulus and rewarding properties
does not explain motivation behind all behaviours

10
Q

humanistic approaches

A

key human motive - strive for personal growth
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
a certain level of needs that a person must strive to meet
before achieving the highest level of personal fulfilment

11
Q

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

A

need hierarchy - a progression contains the deficiency needs at the bottom and uniquely human growth needs at the top

deficiency needs - a lack of satisfaction causes a deficiency that motivate people to meet these needs

growth needs - they arise as a desire to grow as an individual

12
Q

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: terms

A

self-actualisation - the need to fulfil our potential
point at which we have reached our human potential
seldom reached

peak experiences - the time in one’s life when self - actualisation is achieved

transcendence - a search for a spiritual meaning beyond one’s immediate self

13
Q

Maslows hierarchy criticism

A

we can skip levels

doesn’t apply to all cultures

14
Q

self-determinism theory

A

states that there are 3 inborn universal needs that help people gain a complete sense of self and a healthy relationship with others

  1. need for autonomy - to be in control of own behaviour and goals
  2. need for competence - to master challenges of life and perfect skills
  3. need for relatedness - to feel a sense of belonging, intimacy and closeness in relationships

applicable to all cultures

15
Q

physiological components of hunger

A

If the stomach is empty and contracted, hunger usually occurs
Hormones
Insulin and glucagon (hormones secreted by the pancreas) control the levels of fats, proteins and carbohydrates in the body
Insulin is released in great amounts after eating begins – feel more hunger
Leptin (hormone secreted by fat cells) decreases appetite and increases energy expenditure
Homeostatic mechanisms
Eating not necessarily linked to immediate energy needs
Homeostatic mechanisms prevent us from running low on energy

16
Q

The Social and Psychological Components of Hunger 1

A

Social cues
E.g., Coffee culture

Classical conditioning
E.g., Food cues (sight and smell) can trigger eating even when not hungry
E.g., The body becomes conditioned to respond with the hunger reflex at certain times of the day

Eating is positively reinforced by the good taste of food and negatively reinforced by hunger production

17
Q

The Social and Psychological Components of Hunger 2

A

Cultural norms influence when, how, and what we eat
E.g., Japanese women are more likely to eat because of social demands
E.g., In SA rounded hips considered a sign of healthiness and fertility

Gender
E.g., Women are more likely to eat for emotional reasons (USA study)

Attitudes, habits, and beliefs
E.g., Belief in cleaning your plate
E.g., Snacking while watching TV
E.g., Social pressures to conform to cultural standards of beauty

18
Q

Achievement Motivation

A

Need for achievement = positive desire to accomplish tasks & compete successfully with standards of excellence
Motive for success & Fear of failure

High-need achievers = high in achievement & low in fear of failure
Perceive themselves as responsible for outcomes
Prefer challenging tasks that involve moderate risk of not succeeding
Desire performance feedback

19
Q

Achievement-Goal Theory

A

Focuses on the manner in which success is defined both by the individual & within the achievement situation itself
Mastery orientation:
Focus is on personal improvement, giving maximum effort, & perfecting new skills
Ego orientation:
The goal is to outperform others with as little effort as possible
Motivational climate:
Encourages or rewards a mastery approach or an ego approach to defining success

20
Q

Achievement Goal Orientations

A

Mastery-approach goals:
Focus on desire to master a task & learn new knowledge or skills

Ego-approach goals:
Reflect a competitive orientation that focuses on being judged favourably relative to other people

Mastery-avoidance goals:
A fear of not performing up to one’s own standards

Ego-avoidance goals:
Centre on avoiding being outperformed by others

21
Q

Achievement goal theory

A

Each of us can be described in terms of an ‘achievement motivation profile’

Combination ego-approach & mastery-approach may be optimal

Mastery-orientation is preferable to ego-orientation

22
Q

Motivational Climate

A

Influenced by parents, teachers, & coaches

Ego-involving climate:
A climate where people are compared to each other, urged to compete to be the best, & the best get special attention

Mastery-involving climate:
Effort, enjoyment of the activity, & personal improvement is emphasised & rewarded

23
Q

Motivational Climate 2

A

Providing an environment of high cognitive stimulation fosters intrinsic motivation

Caregivers who encourage & reward achievement but do not punish failure foster strong motive for success

Fear of failure develops when caregivers take successful achievement for granted but punish failure

Cultural norms shape achievement motivation
Individualistic cultures tend to stress personal achievement
Collectivistic cultures stress a desire to fit into the family & social group, meet its expectations, and work for its goals