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Flashcards in Motivation - Nina Deck (20)
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1
Q

Motivation

A

Refers to all the mental activities that compel organisms into action

2
Q

Conscious vs unconscious motivation

A

In everyday behaviour we often know precisely why we act in a certain way but according to psychoanalytic theory we may be motivated by unconscious factors and reasons for our actions may be hidden from ourselves

3
Q

Intrinsic vs extrinsic motivation

A

We may be motivated by our internal psycho-physiological states (hunger/ anger)
Or be motivated by external factors in the environment (owning a beautiful house/ finding a shady spot)

4
Q

Sources of motivated behaviour

A
  • Biological patterns of behaviour
  • Bodily homeostasis
  • Optimum arousal
  • Cognitiom
5
Q

Biological patterns of behaviour

A

-Instincts, an innate tendency to carry out a particular pattern of behaviour in specific circumstances

6
Q

William Mcdougall

A

Influenced by Darwin’s theory of evolution and attributed human motivation to instincts

7
Q

Sigmund Freud

A

Considered the instincts that motivated sex and aggression as major factors in human personality
All instincts have a source, a goal, an object and an impetus

8
Q

Source of an instinct

A

Part of the body where biological stimulation occurs

9
Q

Goal of an instinct

A

The experience of satisfaction (psychological gratification) that results from the reduction/removal of the biological stimulation

10
Q

Object of an instinct

A

Anything that mediates the reduction/removal of the biological stimulation thus the object offers psychological gratification

11
Q

Impetus of an instinct

A

Its intensity or driving force

12
Q

Core emotional systems in the brain

A
All mammals have:
1. Rage system
2. Fear system
3. Lust system
4. Care system
5. Panic system
6. Play system
7. Seeking system
These help us survive and adapt to the environment
13
Q

Homeostasis

A

Any deviation from the bodily equilibrium caused by physiological deprivation results in a need

14
Q

Drive

A

A state of tension when there is physiological deprivation
A motivational force that compel individuals to act in a way that will counter the state of deprivation, fulfill the need and reduce the tension

15
Q

Drive modal of homeostasis defines a motivational cycle

A
  1. Drive condition emerges (thirst)
  2. Goal-oriented, preparatory activities which helps locate the object that will reduce the intensity of need (looking for water
  3. The reinforcer enables the consummation response (drinking water) which restores the homeostasis, lowering the need and reducing the int4ensity of the drive
16
Q

Optimum arousal

A

Some need highly stimulating environments (high sensation seekers) while others prefer calm circumstances (low sensation seekers)

17
Q

Cognition

A

We are motivated by what we value
Personal, cultural and social factors that pull people toward a goal
Personal cognitive factors: self-determination, curiousity, challenge also motivate behaviour

18
Q

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

A

Lowest layer: physiological needs, primary drives
Second layer: Safety needs, security
Third layer: need for love and belongingness, desire to give and obtain affection and feel like we are contributing to the society we belong to
Fourth: the need for self-esteem, to develop self-worth
Last layer: the need for self-actualisation

19
Q

Davies’ four substantive

A
  1. Physical needs
  2. Socio-affective needs
  3. The need for self-esteem (dignity)
  4. The need for self-actualisation
20
Q

Davies’ hierarchy of substantive needs

A

In addition to substantive needs, people experience additional needs that help them achieve their substantive needs, called instrumental needs (security, knowledge, power)

Two kinds of barriers

  1. Personal barriers (internal)
  2. Socio-political barriers (external)

In attempts to work around these barriers, people display cooperative or aggressive behaviour

The hierarchy puts people’s live in a socio-psychological perspective