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Flashcards in Groups Deck (40)
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1
Q

Groups

A

A collection of elements that share attributes and/or relate to one another in specific ways

2
Q

General characteristics of groups

A

Group structure

Group process

3
Q

Group structure

A

Structured in circular way
A group norm determines whether or not an element can be considered a member of the group
The strengths of the relationships between the elements indicates the cohesion of the group

4
Q

Group process

A

Group evolves in a certain direction
Interactions amongst the elements may oppose one another leading to unexpected movements in the group as a whole
Some elements may interact more strongly than others which may exert a dominant influence in which the group progresses

5
Q

Attributes of human groups

A
Awareness of group membership
Interaction among members
Common goals
Cohesiveness
Socio-metric structure
Group norms
Group polarisation
Group think
Group conflict
Patterns of leadership and followership
6
Q

Human membership

A

To experience group membership, the members have to have at least one thing in common
They have to believe that the benefit of the membership outweighs the disadvantages
They gradually become more committed to the group and socially integrate into it

7
Q

Group norms

A

Shared expectations about the kinds of behaviours that are required by all group members
Rules that prescribe and forbid certain behaviours
Originate in three ways:
1. Formulated by group leaders
2. Product of group experience
3. Transferred from other groups

8
Q

Group cohesion

A

Strength of relationships among group members
Highly cohesive groups identifies strongly with the group and defend it
A tight group is formed because they have strong sense of joint destiny (inside force)
Their group is threatened by other individuals (outside force)

9
Q

Socio-metric structures

A

Members are not equally attracted to one another
There are patterns of liking and disliking which forms the socio-metric structure
Influenced by the groups’s degree of task orientation
If strongly task oriented, there is strongly there is less opportunity for it to focus on interpersonal relationships
Often develop particular patterns of communication (communication network)
The network determines hierarchy of communication, the frequency and the number of people involved in it

10
Q

Process of human groups

A

Processes starts with interaction
As it develops, there are significant changes in the patterns and frequency in interaction
Normally have specific purposes which can be implicit or explicit
It defines its goals and its development and functioning are determined by them
Members have to perform specific roles, instrumental and affiliative
As groups develop they may change the way in which they emphasise different roles

11
Q

Ringelmann effect

A

Max Ringelmann
When people work in groups, they exert less effort than when working alone
Today this is called social loafing

12
Q

Social loafing

A

Occurs when group members feel that their individual performance is not evaluated and acknowledged, thus are less motivated to exert the required effort
Can be reduced by convincing group members that they are held accountable

13
Q

Instrumental roles

A

Aimed at executing tasks

If groups aim is to produce a particular product instrumental role type is emphasied

14
Q

Affiliative tasks

A

Aimed at support and interpersonal contact

15
Q

Group polarisation

A

When group’s views swing towards extreme positions

Occurs when existing individual opinions, views, ideas and positions become more extreme during group discussion

16
Q

Group conflict

A

Inevitable in the life of any group
Members may have different expectations of the group
May not agree of the group’s goals and methods of achieving them
May lead to negative feelings about one another
Whether it spirals out of control depends on the strength of the group’s purpose

17
Q

Group think

A

In groups that are highly cohesive, the members may become overly aligned with groups goals
Occurs when groups places unanimity ahead of critical thinking
Decisions are taken in an unconsidered and uncritical way
Can happen when group has directive leader who limits the alternatives for group members
Can happen when group is under pressure to make a consensual decision

18
Q

Catastrophic decisions

A

Occur when group cohesion creates an illusion of invulnerability and limitless power
When group relies on stereotyping rather than actual observations and tested facts
When group believes strongly in the inherent morality of its own right of existence, methods and decisions
When illusion of unanimity in the group puts pressure on members to keep quiet about their misgivings

19
Q

Patterns of leadership and followership

A
Status of members varies depending on the nature of their tasks and level of responsibility
Leadership categories
-Leading through personality traits
-Charismatic leadership
-Transformational leadership
-Super leadership
20
Q

Personal-trait approach

A

Postulates that leaders have specific characteristics such as drive and energy, honesty and integrity, self-confidence, intelligence and expertise
Driven by their ambition and need for power
Group members feel safe with them and are willing to subject themselves to their control

21
Q

Charismatic leaders

A

Have self-confidence and sense of purpose
Able to articulate their visions
Motivate group members and guide them with clear purpose

22
Q

Transformational leaders

A

Understand the circumstances and the needs of group members
Flexible and adapt their style of leadership to specific dmads of situations
May choose to do one of the following:
-Delegate
-Follow a participatory style
-Follow a selling style
-Follow a telling style

23
Q

Super leaders

A

Lead others to lead themselves
Transformational leaders but act as teachers and coaches
Empower group members to manage themselves
Increases members’ feeling personal control and encourages them to become intrinsically motivated

24
Q

Main processes in group formation

A

Social categorisation
Social stereotyping
Social identity

25
Q

Social categorisation

A

Process of differentiation whereby there is a distinction between an in-group (us) and an out-group (them)
There’s an interplay between similarity and difference (double logic)

26
Q

Social stereotyping

A

A process of simplifying information about groups
They create expectancies that allow us to perceive selectively, recognising information that confirms our expectations and overlooking that which refutes it thus perpetuating the stereotypes we already have
Creates prejudice and social distance

27
Q

Social identity

A

An individual’s self-confidence has two components: personal identity & social identity
Most individuals have more than one social identity as they belong to more than one of the following groups: ethnic, religious, political and vocational and we play more than one role in the interpersonal domain

28
Q

Interaction of groups

A

Occurs when members of one group act toward members of another and when these actions happen in terms of group membership rather than in terms of the members’ individual capacities

29
Q

Levels of explanation of intergroup relations

A

Swart

  1. Individual-level explanations
  2. Interpersonal level explanations
  3. Position-level explanations
  4. Ideological-level explanations
30
Q

Individual-level explanations

A

Individual dynamics and personality factors

31
Q

Interpersonal level explanations

A

Interpersonal interactions

People are inclined to interact if the interaction offers a psychological reward that is greater than the cost involved

32
Q

Position-level explanations

A

Sherif

Says group conflict results from incompatible group goals or from competition between groups over scarce resources

33
Q

Ideological-level explanations

A

Refer to general belief systems in society which determines the groups behave
May experience conflict when groups adhere to belief systems that are incompatible

34
Q

Framework for intergroup co-operation

A
  1. Create a social norm
  2. Maintain equality of status
  3. Maintain interpersonal contact
  4. Maintain co-operative activites
  5. Develop a multicultural ethos
  6. Develop a critical consciousness of oppressive patterns
35
Q

Creating a social norm

A

Affirms and legitimises the commonality of various groups

36
Q

Maintain equality of status

A

No single group is superior in all respects regarding the way it differs to other groups and likewise, no single group can be low on all counts of difference

37
Q

Maintain interpersonal contact

A

Reduces perceptions of in-group heterogeneity and demolishes perceptions of out-group homogeneity

38
Q

Maintain co-operative activities

A

Setting common goals and allowing groups to develop common interests and values and to look for solutions to problems together

39
Q

Develop multicultural ethos

A

Group members should become aware that apart from being members of a particular group, the also have membership of the broader context in which their group exists

40
Q

Develop a critical consciousness of oppression

A

Replacing an oppressive system with another one, or simply switching the roles of oppressed and the oppressor within a particular system are not cures for oppression