9 11 Clinical Coorilations-Table 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 9 11 Clinical Coorilations-Table 1 Deck (22):

what biomechanical process can lead to heart valve calcification?

Turbulent flow through the valve (bicuspid aortic valve)


how can a stenosed valve lead to hypertrophy

the heart has to work harder to get the blood through the vavle, muscle working harder will grow larger therefore hypertrophy


why does hypertrophy lead to heart failure

a hypertrophy of the heart or a dialation and hypertrophy of the heart will lead to a lower ejection fraction, that is it will be a lower efficiency!


what are some known etiologies of heart failure?

valve problems; infection; ischemic damage; idiopathic; arrhythmias (atrial fibrillation)


what are the symptoms of heart failure

lower extremity edema; shortness of breath (worse with exertion, lying flat); Distended neck viens


why do they get edema in the lower extremities

back up of blood in the venus systm and therefore higher hydrostatic pressure that will push fluid out in the cappilaries.


how do you get rid of the edema in the lower extremities

compression socks, or elevating the legs


why is the neck vessels distened

becuase of a back up of venous blood, and when you get the atrial kick and the closing of the tricuspid valve, you will see the right jugular vein pump noticably.


what is systolic dysfunction

the enlarged ventricles can't squeeze the blood out very well, and the ejection fraction goes down


what is diastolic dysfunction?

the ventricle can't fill as much (the ejection fraction can be normal though since this is a measure of the fraction of blood that comes in that goes out). but it is not enough blood.


what is a normal ejection fraction

around 50% or so


how does ischemic damage lead to heart failure?

by causing damage and death of cells, that leads to a lower efficiency of pumping.


what hints at a histology section that is dead heart cells?

no nucleus in the cells and the presence of extra immune cells.


how does ischemic damage occure

by blockage or just narrowing of the coronary arteries


infarct Vs. Ischemia

Infarct is dead tissue and a whole area is visibly dead; Ischemic is a lower level of damage where the cells just aren't getting enough oxygen, and this can lead to infarct.


how can rheumatic fever lead to higher pulmonary artery pressure

by cuasing stenosis of valves, such as the Left AV that would lead to a back flow of blood into the lungs and to the pulmonary artery


how does rheumatic heart disease lead to problems

strep throat happens, and then repeated inflammation and fibrinous repair, leaflet thickening and shortening and thickening of chrodae teninae (other valves can too)


what is a fish mouth valve?

The characteristic appearence of mitral valve that is stenosed by rhumatic heart disease. It is curved and a little gaping at the mouth edges.


what happans to the heart in rhumatic heart disease?

Thickened mitral valve, thickened chordae tendineae, left ventricular hypertrophy


how could you describe the sounds of a heart that you are listening to.

Rythm, Rate, Number of sounds, the character of the sounds, murmers, extra sounds,


what is irregularly irregular when describing the heart.

irregular rate of an irregular rythmn


how can a stenosed mitral valve lead to a higher blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries?

the blood is backed up in the left atrium and this enlarges, backs up blood to the lungs and then to the pulmonary arteries.