what kind of tissue is blood?
specialized CT, termed discontinous because cells are born in one place and function elsewhere.
what does blood consist of?
plasma; about 54-62% and cells or "formed "ellements"
what is the composition of the formed elements
leukocytes and Erythrocytes mostly the latter!
what is the component of the blood that clots?
plasma will clot out
what is the liquid that his left after clotting?
what are the three types of ‘formed elements’ in blood
1. Erythrocutes or red cells. 2. Leukocytes or white cells. 3. Thrombocytes or platelets
what is the common stains for blood
what is eosinophilic/acidophilic staining
red to orange stain
what is basophilic staining?
dark purple or black
what is neutorphilic staining?
pink or tan
what is polychromatiophilic staining?
blue or gray
what are the cellular components of blood
1. erythrocytes; 2. leukocytes (white) (Polymorphonoculear neutrophils (PMNs) Eosonophils, basophils (these three are granulocytes) monocytes lymphocytes 3. platelets
what is the hematocrit (HCT)
PCV, volume of packed red cells, 35-50%
what is the average diameter of a red blood cell?
7microns (10 to the -6 meter)
why are red blood cells biconcave disc shaped?
they can bend and have a high surface to volume ration.
what gives the red blood cell the shape it has
plasma membrane spectrum actin complex interacting with the membrane, that allows them to reach the size that they are and have the biconcave disc shape.
what are unique qualities of red blood cells
just container for hemoglobin, lack organelles (use glycolysis for energy), carbonic anhydrase catalyzes conversion of CO2 to carbonic acid, wich dissociates to H and HCO this is how move most CO2 is carried in the blood.
what do aquaporins do in red blood cells
Facilitate water movements (but doesn't seem essential to the cell!)
what does band 3, the anion atiporter facilitate
Facilitates exchange of HCO3- and Cl- across the plasma membrane.
what is Anemai?
low content of hemaglobin, not enough red cells or not enough Hb/RBC; or not enough oxygen on the hemoglobin
what is polycythemia?
increases RBCs /ml and this can produce thick blood. this can happen in higher elevations etc. this can lead to infarcs and other diseasaes
what happens to cells that have changes in the cytoskeletal proteins of Red blood cells
Loss of RBC Flexibility and/or increase fragility, often altered shape.
how do we remove faulty cells in the blood
destroy them in the spleen (through pitting and culling), and if done too much this can lead to anemia
what is hereditary spherocytosis?
mutaitons in genes coding for the cytoskeletal components, and altered membranes cause pitting in spleen, then can only form spheres, common in those of norhtern equropean descent (anemia! and cells ge stuck)
Sickle cell anemia and thalassemia?
result form mutations in genes coding for the Hb, aHbS forms polymers that distort cell chape, cells are culled inthe spleen. these cells get stuck in the veins and cappilaries and cause problems.
what is a red blood cell central pallor?
the lighter color in the middle that tells you it has the right shape.
what to look for in red blood cells
Red blood cells with central pallor, and all the same nice pretty size.
what is pitting and culling in the spleen
cells try and squeeze through the small openings in the spleen and if they can't go through then macrophages come and take pieces out or cull them completely
PMNs: they have these lobes in the nucleous (2--5 lobes) they are about twice the size of a red blood cell (10-15 U in diameter)
what is the PMN granules?
membrane bound similar to lysosomes and peroximsomes, contain and generate substances which kill bacteria
how to Identify PMN?
Nucleus, shape and color keys to identification: the multi-lobed pinkish color nucleus with size twice a normal RBC.
How do PMN sense and respond to inflammatory signal?
Selectins proteins on the serface of the endothelial loosly bind and roll the PMN. If inflammatory signals, then more selectin expressed and PMNs express integrins, bind tight and activated, and they leave capillaries and enter which is called diapedesis. then PMN move on concentration gradient towards inflamatory molecules (this is called chemotaxis).
what is the basis of the phagocytosis of a neutrophil?
receptors bind to the surface of a target, wrap the membrane around the target, and fuse around it.
how does PMN kill
They ingest the microbes, then fuse granules with the phagosomes, releasing hydrolases and reactive oxygen species all over them.
what is the basis of inflammation?
the leakage of the killing factors into tissue from PMN, and the signaling molecules associated with damage lead to inflammation.
what is the lifespan of a PMNs
live onlly hours in the blood and days if they enter a tissue.
what would happen if there is a lack of intigrin in the process of PMN activation
the PMN could not get into the site of infection therefore you get really high PMN levels in the blood, and not in the site of infection.
how can we identiphy eosinophils?
they have big bright red granules.
what is the contents of the granules of eosinophils
major basic protein...this can form a crystalline band in granule in a TEM (a landmark for identification).
what does major basic protien target
worm and parasites in the larval form!
waht cells recruit eosinophils?
mast cells and bind to larva coated with IgG or IgE and degranulate on them!
what negative implications have been given to eosinophils?
Implicated with alleriges because they release MBP and damage host tissue. they may also destroy histamine and IgG: and there for modulate inflammation too....or they may just cause asthma?!
what are the precursors to macrophages?
how do identify monocytes?
large (about 3 or 4 times a RBC) and with a folded or once lobed nucleus
what are other names for macrophages? histiocytes, or reticuloendothelial cells (Kepffer cells in the liver).
lymphocytes: how to identify 80-90% of them and what are they usually?
about the size of a red blood cell. and have a large nucleus and thin rim of cytoplams (these are the T and B cells and have to do with acquired immunity).
Lymphocytes (the minority ones): how to identify?
they are large and granular (about 15 u) -- These are NK cells mostly.
what are platelets
small cell fragments that bind and spread out. they don't have a nucleus.
what is the basic funciton of Platelets?
they bind to collagen at a broken vessel and plug small holes, activate and promote blood clotting reactions. Contract the clot via actomyosin activity.
What are the different components of blood?
- Polymorphonuclear neutrophils