connective tissue in thorax; separates chest wall & diaphragm from parietal pleura; covers peaks of lungs. just inside the intercostal muscles along the interior of the thorasic wall.
sack surrounding the organs of the mediastinum, forms the lateral boundaries. Theparietal pleura covers the non-pulmonary surfaces within thethoracic cavity and extends morecaudally than the lungs. it is the bag around the lungs and extends down below them.
the space caudal to the lungs that is still within the pleura, but extends down along the daiprham and rib cage.
site where costal & mediastinal parietal pleura connect; anterior, near midline; exists only when lungs not completely filling pleura. This is infront of the lungs, and entails a little space between lungs and thorasic wall.
space between the pleura sac that surrounds the lungs and the lungs themselves
the inner membrane that directly encases and attaches to the lungs.
pathwya for air from the pharynx to the lungs (T4-T5 level)
raised ridge of cartilage in sagittal plane; marks bifurcation of left & right primary bronchi at level of sternal angle (T4-T5 level). This is the ship's hull of the brachia trunk
primary (main bronchi)
the main tube just inferior to the trachea
secondary (lobar) bronchi
branch from the primary bronchi to the different lobes of the lungs (3 on the right and 2 on the left)
Tertiary (segmental bronchi
branches from the secondary bronchi that then supply the bronchopulmonary segments.
Hilum and pulmonary ligament
the hilum is the entire collectio of vein/artery/bronchi/ that go in and out of the lung (it is the connective area of the lung). the pulmonary ligament is a inferior extension of the hilum, and serves for structue support.
the arteries that course into the lungs. on the left they are supperior, and on the right lung they are in the serperior to anterior location
the vessels that take oxygenated blood out of the lungs, they are located in the inferior location on the left lung and the inferior and a little anterior section on the right lung.
the airways (this is the general term for the tubes that cary air to and from the lungs.
bronchopulmonary lymph nodes
these are the nodes of the lymph vessels that are located within the lungs usually at biforcations of the bronchial.
Paired vessels to the lungs that project laterally from the aorta. The bronchial arteries carry oxygen-rich blood and supply the roots of the lungs
right side, this lung has 3 main lobes!
the upper portion of the lung that pushes up into the neck above rib one.
RL Superior lobe
forms the anterior and superior portions of the right lung.
RL Horizontal fissure
these are invaginations of visceral pleura between the lobes of the lung. the horizontal is located between the superior and middle lobes.
RL middle lobe
the anteior and inferior portions of the right lungs. the smallest lobe and it is wedge shaped. (unique to the right lung)
RL oblique fissure
visceral pleura invagination between the middle and inferior lobes.
RL Inferior lobe
forms the posterior and inferior potions of the lung.
the bottom of the right lung, on the diaphram
int eh left pleural cavity, smaller that the right lung and only 2 lobes seperated by an oblique fissure, but it does have the lingula.
the top of the left lung that extends up towards the neck and above rib 1
LL Superior lobe
forms the anterior and superior portions of the left lung
LL oblique fissure
an invagination of the viseral pleura located between the superior and inferior lobes. more vertical than the oblique fissure fo the right lung.
LL Inferior lobe
Foms the posteior and inferior portions of the left lung.
the toungue like extension of the supeior lobe, serves like a "middle lobe" for the left lung.
bottom of the lung
anterior descending branch of cervical plexus; arise: C3-C5; enters mediastinum & thorax on route to lung; supplies diaphragm
dome-shaped musculotendinous septum; convex surface directed superiorly; separates thorax & abdomen; major contributor to normal inspiration
the space that is occupied by the pleural sac that encases the lungs.
potential space; betw. visceral layer & parietal pericardium; filled with pericardial fluid (serous) that reduces friction of beating heart
part of inf. mediastinum between pericardial sac & sternum; holds thymus; smallest subdivision of inf. mediastinum
part of inferior mediastinum; holds pericardial sac
part of inf. mediastinum between pericardial sac & thoracic vertebral column; communicates with superior mediastinum. seems to be from the spinal process down to where the bottom of the heart would be.
part of mediastinum above heart & pericardial sac; inferior border defined by transverse plane between sternal angle & intervertebral disc
1st major br. of aortic arch; divides into right subclavian a. (supplies right upper limb) & right common carotid a. (supplies head & neck)
left common carotid artery
second major branch off of the aorta, supplies the head and neck but not anything in the thoracic sall or viscera.
left subclavian artery
arises just lateral to the common carotid artery on the aortic arch, supplies upper limb and anterior region of thoracic wall. gives off costocervical trunk & internal thoracic a.
ahte aorta after it makes the arch and starts to dexcend down the body, gives rise to the intercostal arteries.
posterior intercostal arteries
the intercostal arteries that arise directly fromt he descending aorta and travel along the ribs.
artery that arises from the descending aorta and course along and supply the esophagus.
arteries from the descending aorta that supply the bronchia
thoracic lymphatic duct
the series of lymph ducts that run just below the esophagus along the spinal coloumn and next to the descending aorta, characterized by a white soft color, and a branched appearence.
variable origin; passes through diaphragm; ascends post. mediastinum; joins post. SVC; drains proximal & distal esophagus, thorax, & abdomen
receives lower posterior intercostal v., subcostal v., tributaries from the medistinum & left ascending lumbar v.; joins azygos v.
accessory hemiazygos vein
receives 4th-8th posterior intercostal v. at 4th intercostal space; courses to right & typically joins azygos v. (may join hemiazygos v.)
posterior intercostal veins
the intercostal veins that are in the posterior section of the ribs, they drain into the azygos system of vessels.
sympathetic chain internodal fibers
the fibers between the nodes of the chain?
gray and white rami communicantes (symp. chain)
White communicating rami. Lateral branches of each ganglion that join the ventral ramus of the spinal nervedistal to the gray communicating ramus. These rami carry preganglionic neurons from the ventral ramus of the spinal nerve to the sympathetic trunk ganglion. The preganglionic neurons can pass through the ganglia to ascend to cervical sympathetic trunk ganglia or descend in sympathetic splanchnic nerves into the abdomen, or they synapse with postganglionic neurons in the respective thoracic sympathetic trunk ganglia. Visceral sensory neurons from the sympathetic trunk may also pass through the white rami into the spinal nerve.
Gray communicating rami. Lateral branches of each ganglion that join the ventral ramus of the spinal nerveproximal to the white communicating ramus. These rami carry postganglionic neurons from the ganglia back to the spinal nerve to be distributed to the blood vessels, sweat glands, and arrector pili muscles of the thoracic body wall.
superficial and deep cardiac plexuxes (symp. chain)
Cardiac plexus. Serves as a conduit for postganglionic sympathetic fibers and parasympathetic fibers.
The cardiac plexus is divided into a superficial cardiac plexus (between the aortic arch and the pulmonary artery) and a deep cardiac plexus (between the aortic arch and the tracheal bifurcation).
Branches affect the SA node and AV node, other components of the conduction system, coronary arteries, and cardiac musculature.
Sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers from the cardiac plexus assist in regulating the heart through their influence on the SA node and AV node.
cardiopulmonary splanchnic nn (symp. chain)
(T1-T4) the nerves that provide the route for sympathetic innervation of the heart.
In general splanchnic nerve may refer to cardiopulmonary, thoracic splanch., lumbar splanch., sacral splanch. or pelvic splanch. n.; innervate viscera with autonomic
greater splanchinic nerve (symp. chain)
(T5-T9) arise from that level and go down throug the diaphram to the abdominal area to provide sympathetic innervation to the blood vessesl to organs of the foregut etc.
lesser splanchnic nerve (symp. chain)
(T10-T11) arise just below the greater splanchnic nerve, provide sympathetic innervation.
provide innervation to th kidney, and surarenal gland.
least splanchnic nerve (symp. chain)
provide sypmathetic innervation to the kidney and adrenal gland
(CN X) The vagus nerve (CN X) develops from the 4th and 6th branchial arches (pharyngeal arches) and is named for its wandering nature (vagus derives from the word vagabond or wanderer). CN X provides branchial motor innervation to almost all pharyngeal, laryngeal, and palatal muscles; visceral motor parasympathetic innervation to the esophagus,foregut, and midgut; visceral sensory innervation from the distal esophagus, foregut, and midgut; special sensoryinnervation (taste) from the epiglottis; and general sensory innervation to the laryngopharynx and the proximal portion of the esophagus.
Left recurrent laryngeal nerve
Branches from CN X proper; courses in the superior mediastinum looping posteriorly around the aortic arch near the ligamentum arteriosus; then, ascends through the superior mediastinum to enter the groove between the esophagus and the trachea.
right recurrent laryngeal nerve
Branches from CN X proper prior to entering the superior the mediastinum; loops posteriorly around the right subclavian artery and then ascends in the groove between the esophagus andtrachea.
Innervates the esophagus. The esophageal plexus coalesces as the anterior and posterior vagal trunks as it enters the abdominal cavity through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm.
Anterior and posterior vagal trunks
(Vagus) trunks of the vagus nerve that run on the right (posterior) and left (anterior) of the esophagus.
what are the divisions of the mediastinum?