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Flashcards in Quiz 3 Deck (64)
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1
Q

Pelvic symphysis

A

Seconday cartiliginous joint which ossifies with age. Begins at pubis & moves caudally.
Join the pubis and ischium.

2
Q

Sacro-iliac joints

A

Combine synovial joint with adjacent fibrous union.

Allow firm joint with shock absorption.

3
Q

Sacrotuberous ligament

A

Dog: stout cord which runs from transverse processes of S3&Cd1 to lateral angle of ischiatic tuberosity.
Point of attachment for biceps femoris m. & others
Cat: absent

4
Q

Ball-&-socket joint

A

Hip joint.

Main movements are flexion & extension.

5
Q

Ligament of femoral head

A

Thick band of collagenous tissue.
Extends from acetabular fossa to fovea capitis.
Prevents dislocation of hip joint.

6
Q

Transverse acetabular ligament

A

Small band, extends from one side of acetabular notch to other.
Continues the acetabular lip

7
Q

Acetabular lip

A

Deepens the acetabulum to keep femur head solidly in place

8
Q

Ligaments of knee

A
1&2. Cranial & caudal cruciate 
3. Meniscofemoral
4. Transverse 
5&6. Lateral & medial femoropatellar
7&8. Lateral & medial collateral
9. Patellar
9
Q

Stifle

A

Knee joint.

Comprised of three bones: femur, tibia, & patella

10
Q

Axial skeleton

A

Includes skull, hyoid apparatus, vertebrae, ribs, & sternum

11
Q

Appendicular skeleton

A

Bones of the limbs & their joints

12
Q

How many bones of the vertebral column?

A

~ 50 irregular bone

13
Q

What is the function of the vertebral column?

A

Aid in locomotion: link thoracic and pelvic limb & provide direction and support for locomotor system
Protect the spinal cord

14
Q

What are the vertebral groups

A
Cervical (C) (7)
Thoracic (T) (13)
Lumbar (L) (7)
Sacral (S) (3 - fused)
Caudal (Cd) (~20 - depends on breed)
15
Q

Body of vertebrae

A

Cranial side = convex
Caudal side = concave
Intervertebral disks

16
Q

Intervertebral disks

A

Fibrous joints between bodies
Comprised of: nucleus pulposus & anulus fibrosus
Function: absorb shock & allow movement

17
Q

Vertebral arch

A

Two parts: pedicles (basal part) & laminae (dorsal part)

18
Q

Vertebral foramen

A

Vertebral arch + body

19
Q

Vertebral canal

A

All vertebral foramina

20
Q

Intervertebral foramina

A

Small holes which pass the spinal nerve & blood vessels

21
Q

Spinous processes

A

Located dorsally

The “spine”

22
Q

Transverse processes

A

Projects laterally from area where arch joins body

23
Q

Transverse foramen

A

Short canal that pass obliquely through transverse process.

Contain vertebral a. & v.

24
Q

Articular processes

A

Articulates with ribs.
Two on each side of vertebra: cranial pair & caudal pair
Prevent lateral movement

25
Q

Atlas

A

C1
Transverse process form wings
No spinous process
Form atlanto-occipital joint: hinge joint (“yes”)

26
Q

Axis

A

C2
Elongated spinous process
Form atlanto-axial joint: pivot joint (“no”)

27
Q

Thoracic vertebrae

A

T1-T9 have spinous process
T12 & T13 have different shape
Articulate with ribs

28
Q

Lumbar vertebrae

A

Spinous process are blunt

Transverse process are prominent & directed cranially

29
Q

Sacral vertebrae

A

Fused

Articulate with ilia

30
Q

Sternum

A

Composed of 8 unpaired segments (sternebrae)

Joined by intersternbral cartilages

31
Q

Manubrium

A

First sternebrae

32
Q

Xiphoid process

A

Eighth sternebrae

33
Q

Which ribs articulate with sternum?

A
True ribs (sternal ribs)
Dogs/cats = ribs 1-9 (9 pairs)
Horses = ribs 1-8 (8 pairs)
34
Q

Which ribs form costal arch?

A
False ribs (asternal ribs)
Dogs/cats = ribs 10-12 (3 pairs)
Horse = ribs 9-18 (10 pairs)
35
Q

Floating rib

A
No attachment (form of asternal ribs)
Dogs/cats = rib 13 (1 pair)
Horse = rib 19 (1 pair)
36
Q

How are ribs numbered?

A

Based on thoracic vertebrae they articulate with

37
Q

Supraspinous ligament

A

Ligament running along tips of spinous processes

T1-Cd3

38
Q

Interspinous ligament

A

Ligament between spinous processes

39
Q

Nuchal ligament

A

Strong band of connective tissue between spinous processes
Relieves epaxial muscles
Dog: C2-T1
Horse/ox: Extensive. Consists of funicular (from skull) and lamellar (from T2-3) parts

40
Q

Epaxial muscles

A

Lie dorsal to transverse processes of T & L vertebrae.

Consist of Transversospinalis system, longissimus system, and iliocostalis system.

41
Q

Hypaxial muscles

A

Located ventral to transverse processes
Flexors
Consist of neck, thorax, and abdominal wall muscles

42
Q

Neck muscles

A
  1. Longus capitis

2. Longus colli

43
Q

Thorax (thoracic wall)

A
  1. Scalenus
  2. Rectus thoracis
  3. Serratus ventralis (cervicis & thoracis)
  4. Serratus dorsalis (cranialis & caudalis)
  5. External intercostals (run caudoventrally)
  6. Internal intercostals (run cranioventrally)
44
Q

Abdominal wall

A
  1. External abdominal oblique (inguinal canal)
  2. Internal abdominal oblique (caudal border fibers forms cremaster m. in male)
  3. Transversus abdominis (fibers run transversely)
  4. Rectus abdominis (in the umbilical region)
45
Q

Prepubic tendon

A

Strong fibrous structure attached to cranial border of pubic bones

46
Q

Inguinal canal

A

Passageway for abdominal structures out of abdomen.

Between deep and superficial inguinal rings

47
Q

Transversospinalis system

A
  1. splenius

2. Semispinalis capitis (biventer cervicis, complexus)

48
Q

Longissimus system

A
  1. Thoracis et lumborum
  2. Cervicis
  3. Capitis
49
Q

Iliocostalis system

A
  1. Lumborum

2. Thoracis

50
Q

Muscles of inspiration

A
  1. Sternocephalicus
  2. Scalenus
  3. Rectus thoracis
  4. Serratus dorsalis (cranial)
  5. External intercostals
  6. Diaphragm
51
Q

Muscles of expiration

A
  1. External abdominal oblique
  2. Internal abdominal oblique
  3. Transversus abdominis
  4. Serratus ventralis
  5. Serratus dorsalis (caudal)
  6. Internal intercostals
  7. Rectus abdominis
  8. Diaphragm
52
Q

Cranial nerves

A

12 major pairs in head. Arise from brain and emerge through holes in skull

53
Q

Peripheral nerves

A

Paired nerves from spinal cord that exit from vertebral column through spaces between vertebrae

54
Q

Sensory nerves

A

Afferent nerves
Carry info from periphery of body to spinal cord/brain
Ex. olfactory nerve

55
Q

Motor nerves

A

Efferent nerves
Transmit impulses from brain/spinal cord to periphery
Ex. Accessory nerve

56
Q

Mixed nerves

A

Composed of both motor and sensory fibers

Ex. Spinal nerves

57
Q

Structure of nerves

A

Basic unit: neuron

Components: cell body, dendrites, axon (myelin sheath), and nerve terminal

58
Q

Spinal cord nerves

A
Leave spinal cord via intervertebral foramen behind each vertebrae.
Depends on species
Dog:
Cervical (8)
Thoracic (13)
Lumbar (7)
Sacral (3)
Caudal (5)
59
Q

Cervical spinal nerves

A
  1. Accessory nerve: Cr 11
  2. C2
  3. C3
  4. C4
  5. C5
60
Q

Intercostal arteries

A

Divide into ventral & dorsal branches.
Combine where dorsal a. & v. pass ventrally to ventral a. & v.
Run caudally of each rib

61
Q

Ventral branches of intercostal arteries

A

Come from internal thoracic a. & v.

62
Q

Dorsal branches of intercostal arteries

A

First 3: come from costocervical a.

Last 9: come from aorta

63
Q

Deep vessels of thoracic wall

A
  1. Subclavian a.
  2. Internal thoracic a.
  3. Musculophrenic a.
  4. Cranial epigastric a.
  5. Cranial superficial epigrastric a.
64
Q

Mammary glands

A

Blood supply from internal thoracic a.: cranial & caudal thoracic
Blood supply from cranial & caudal superficial epigastric a.: cranial & caudal abdominal and inguinal