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Flashcards in Quiz 4 Deck (61)
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1
Q

Pleurae

A

2 serous membranes covering lungs & lining the thorax.
Parietal pleura
Visceral pleura

2
Q

Parietal pleura

A

Outer.
Attached to thoracic wall
Attaches via the endothoracic fascia

3
Q

Visceral pleura

A

Inner.

Connected to surface of lungs

4
Q

Pleural cavity

A

Also called intrapleural space.
Space between visceral and costal pleura.
Filled with pleural fluid (lube for pleurae)
Left & right: separated

5
Q

Mediastinum

A

Central compartment of thoracic cavity.

Contains: heart, great vessels of heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus, vagus nerves, & lymph nodes of chest

6
Q

Phrenicopericardial ligament

A

Ligament between caudal heart & thoracic wall

Located caudally to heart

7
Q

Lung lobes

A

Left: cranial (cranial & caudal), caudal lobes
Right: cranial, middle, caudal, accessory

8
Q

Cranial lobe of right lung

A

Between 4th & 5th rib space

9
Q

Veins cranial to heart

A
Cranial vena cava
Brachiocephalic (external jugular & subclavian)
Azygos
Thoracic duct
Right lymphatic duct
10
Q

Azygos vein

A

Last vein entering cranial vena cava
Only on right side
Collects all dorsal intercostal veins

11
Q

Thoracic duct

A
Lymph drainage from:
Viscera
Pelvic limb
Left thoracic limb
Left tracheal trunk
into the left brachiocephalic vein
12
Q

Right lymphatic duct

A

Lymph drainage from:
Right thoracic limb
Right tracheal trunk
into the right brachiocephalic vein

13
Q

Arteries cranial to the heart

A
Aorta; ascending:
Brachiocephalic trunk (right & left common carotoid, right subclavian -> vertebral -> costocervical -> internal thoracic -> superficial cervical -> axillary)
Left subclavian (vertebral -> costocervical -> internal thoracic -> superficial cervical -> axillary)
14
Q

Venipuncture sites

A

Location of blood collection
Cephalic vein & external jugular
(Axillobrachial & omobrachial)

15
Q

Lymphatic drainage

A

The thoracic duct is the chief channel for return of lymph in the body

16
Q

Rami communicantes

A

Branches of communication between each spinal nerve & sympathetic trunk

17
Q

Sympathetic ganglion

A

A concentrated mass of nerve cell bodies

Mainly: cranial sympathetic ganglion, middle cervical ganglion, & sympathetic trunk ganglion)

18
Q

Sympathetic pathway

A

Origin: L1-L3; thoracolumbar region
Parts: Preganglionic pathway, ganglion (close to spinal cord), postganglionic pathway (long fibers w/ lots of branching)
Target organs: smooth muscle & gland of pelvic viscera (urinary tract, genitalia, rectum, & anal canal blood vessels & smooth muscle)

19
Q

Preganglionic pathway of sympathetic pathway

A

Ventral root, spinal nerve, ramus communicans, sympathetic trunk, lumbar splanchnic nerves, & caudal mesenteric plexus

20
Q

Ganglion of sympathetic pathway

A

Caudal mesenteric ganglion

21
Q

Postganglionic pathway of sympathetic pathway

A

Left/right hypogastric nerve to pelvic plexus, branches to pelvic viscera from pelvic plexus

22
Q

Parasympathetic pathway

A

Origin: craniosacral region
Parts: preganglionic pathway, ganglion (close to target organs), & postganglionic pathway (short fibers w/ little branching)
Target organs of pelvic viscera: smooth muscle & glands of pelvic viscera (urinary tract, genitalia, descending colon, rectum, & anal canal blood vessels)

23
Q

Preganglionic pathway of parasympathetic pathway

A

Ventral root, spinal nerve, ventral primary branch, lumbosacral nerve plexus, pelvic nerve, & pelvic plexus

24
Q

Ganglion of parasympathetic pathway

A

Pelvic ganglia

25
Q

Postganglionic pathway of parasympathetic pathway

A

Direct branches from pelvic plexus to pelvic viscera

26
Q

Chambers of the heart

A

Auricles
Atria
Ventricles

27
Q

Auricles

A

Earlike appendage of each atrium

Pectinate muscle

28
Q

Atria

A

Two superior chamber of the heart
Receive the blood
Right side divided into: sinus venarum & right auricle

29
Q

Ventricles

A

Two lower chambers (pumping chambers)

Parts: chordae tendinae, papillary muscles, trabeculae carneae, trabecula septomarginalis

30
Q

Valves of the heart

A

Direct flow of blood in one direction:
Atrioventricular
Semilunar

31
Q

Atrioventricular valve

A

Right: tricuspid valve (cusps: angular, parietal, septal)
Left: bicuspid/mitral valve (cusps: parietal, septal)

32
Q

Semilunar valve

A

Half-moon shaped flaps
Grow from lining of pulmonary artery & aorta.
Pulmonary trunk -> pulmonary semilunar valve
Aorta -> aortic semilunar valve

33
Q

Blood circulation into heart

A
Vena cava (cranial & caudal), azygos, & coronary sinus ->
r. atria -> r. atrioventricular valve -> r. ventricle -> pulmonary semilunar valve -> pulmonary trunk
34
Q

Blood circulation out of heart

A
Pulmonary artery (left & right) ->
pulmonary valve -> l. atria -> l. atrioventricular valve -> l. ventricle -> aortic semilunar valve -> aorta
35
Q

Conduction of heart

A

Cardiac muscle of conduction (only one: others are contraction m.)
Sinoatrial node -> atrioventricular node -> atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His) -> purkinje fibers

36
Q

Sinoatrial node (SA node)

A

Pacemaker
Hundreds of cells located in r. atrial wall
Near superior vena cava

37
Q

Atrioventricular node

A

Special cardiac tissue

Located in r. atrium along lower part of interatrial septum

38
Q

Atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His) + Purkinje fibers

A

Special cardiac fibers originating in AV node
Extend down septum.
Turn into PF at lateral walls of ventricles & papillary m.

39
Q

Fetal heart

A

Foramen ovale
Ductus arteriosus
Ductus venosus

40
Q

Foramen ovale

A

Shunt allowing blood to enter l. atrium from r. atrium. Bypasses pulmonary circulation.
Closes after birth: becomes fossa ovalis

41
Q

Fossa ovalis

A

Closed foramen ovale

42
Q

Ductus arteriosus

A

Shunt connecting pulmonary artery to aortic arch. Alllow blood from r. ventricle to bypass fetus’ fluid-filled lungs. Closes after birth: becomes ligamentum arteriosum

43
Q

Ligamentum arteriosum

A

Closed ductus arteriosus

44
Q

Ductus venosus

A

Shunts a portion of l. umbilical vein blood to descending vena cava. Allows O. blood from placenta to bypass liver.
Closes after birth: becomes ligamentum venosum

45
Q

Ligamentum venosum

A

Closed ductus venosus

46
Q

Major arteries of thoracic limb

A

Subclavian
Axillary
Brachial
Median

47
Q

Arteries branching from subclavian artery

A
Vertebral
Costocervical
Internal thoracic
Superficial cervical
Axillary
48
Q

Arteries branching from axillary artery

A

External thoracic
Lateral thoracic
Subscapular -> (thoracodorsal, caudal circumflex humeral)
Cranial circumflex humeral

49
Q

Arteries branching from brachial artery

A
Deep brachial
Bicipital
Collateral ulnar
Superficial brachial
Common interosseus -> (cranial & caudal interosseous, ulnar)
Deep antebrachial?
50
Q

Arteries branching from median artery

A

Radial

Deep antebrachial?

51
Q

Cephalic vein

A

Injection site & blood collection site on thoracic limb

Runs along cranial surface of antebrachium -> deep of cleidobrachialis m. -> external jugular vein

52
Q

Nerves of thoracic limb

A
Suprascapular 
Subscapular
Musculocutaneous
Axillary
Thoracodorsal
Radial
Median
Ulnar
53
Q

Suprascapular nerve

A

Origin: C6-7
Innervation: suprasinatus, infraspinatus

54
Q

Subscapular nerve

A

Origin: C6-7
Innervation: subscapularis

55
Q

Musculocutaneous nerve

A

Origin: C6-8
Innervation: corocobrachialis, bicips brachii, brachialis

56
Q

Axillary nerve

A

Origin: C7-8
Innervation: teres major & minor, deltoideus, subscapularis

57
Q

Thoracodorsal nerve

A

Origin: C7-8, T1
Innervation: latissimus dorsi

58
Q

Radial nerve

A

Origin: C7-8, T1-2
Innervation: triceps brachii, tensor fasciae, antebrachii, anconeus, common digital extensor, lateral digital extensor, supinator, extensor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis, ulnaris lateralis, abductor digit I longus

59
Q

Median nerve

A

Origin: C8, T1-2
Innervation: Pronator teres, flexor carpi radialis, superficial digital flexor, pronator quadratus

60
Q

Ulnar nerve

A

Origin: C8, T1-2
Innervation: Flexor carpi ulnaris, deep digital flexor (ulnar & humeral heads)

61
Q

Internal thoracic artery

A

Ends in the musculophrenic artery & cranial epigastric artery