Quiz 5 Flashcards Preview

Comparative Anatomy > Quiz 5 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Quiz 5 Deck (102)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

What arteries supply the abdominal muscles (wall)?

A

Cranial abdominal a.
Cranial epigastric a.
Caudal epigastric a.
Deep circumflex iliac a.

2
Q

What nerves supply the ventral & lateral abdominal muscles (wall)?

A

Cranial iliohypogastric n. (L1)
Caudal ioliohypogastric n. (L2)
Ilioinguinal n. (L3)
Lateral cutaneous femoral n. (L4)

3
Q

Deep vessels of abdominal wall

A
Abdominal aorta 
External iliac a. -> femoral a. 
Deep femoral a. 
Pudendoepigastric trunk -> ext. pudendal a. -> caudal superficial epigastric a. 
Caudal epigastric a.
4
Q

Caudal superficial epigastric a. supplies which mammae?

A

Cranial & caudal abdominal
Inguinal
+ prepuce in males

5
Q

What supplies the scrotum in males & labia in females

A

Small dorsal branch of caudal superficial epigastric a.

6
Q

External pudendal a.

A

Origin: pudendoepigastric trunk
Gives rise to: caudal superficial epigastric a.
Emerges from: superficial inguinal ring
Supply blood to: gracilis m.

7
Q

Vaginal tunic

A

Male
Double peritoneal fold
Encloses the spermatic cord & testis
Made of:
Visceral layer (adheres to testis & cord)
Parietal layer (lines scrotum & inguinal canal)

8
Q

Vaginal process

A

Female
Diverticulum
Encloses the round ligament of the uterus
Found in free edge of perpendicular sheet of broad ligament
Passes from caudal pole of ovary to inguinal canal

9
Q

Inguinal canal structures (male)

A

External pudendal a & v.
Genitofemoral n.
Cremaster m.
Spermatic cord

10
Q

Inguinal canal structures (female)

A

External pudendal a & v.
Genitofemoral n.
Vaginal process

11
Q

Genitofemoral nerve

A

Arises from ventral branch of L3 & L4
Males: innervates cremaster m. & part of prepuce
Females: innervates pubic area

12
Q

Cremaster muscle

A

Arises from internal abdominal oblique m
Attaches to parietal vaginal tunic near testis
Raise & lower scrotum: regulate temp. of testis & promote spermatogenesis

13
Q

Spermatic cord

A
Carried through inguinal canal by descent of testis
Contains:
Vas deferens
Testicular a. & v. (pampiniform plexus)
Testicular lymph vessels
Testicular nerve plexus (L3-5)
14
Q

Falciform ligament

A

Fold of peritoneum that passes from umbilicus to diaphragm & attaches to liver

15
Q

Round ligament of liver

A

Found in free margin of falciform ligament

Fetal remnant of umbilical vein

16
Q

Median ligament of the bladder

A

In fetus it contains the urachus

17
Q

Urachus

A

Fetal remnant of allantois

A canal that drains the urinary bladder of the fetus that runs within the umbilical cord

18
Q

Round ligament of the bladder

A

Remnants of umbilical arteries in the lateral ligaments of the bladder
Caudal to the umbilicus
Attaches to the bladder

19
Q

Abdominal viscera

A
Internal organ of the abdomen:
Greater & lesser omentum
Urinary bladder
Spleen
Diaphragm
Liver
Gallbladder
Pancreas
Stomach
Small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum)
Large intestine (Cecum, colon)
Adrenal glands
Kidneys
Reproductive tract
20
Q

Greater omentum

A

Double-layered sac (leaves):
Superficial leaf (ventral body wall)
Deep leaf (abdominal organs)
Attachment: greater curvature of the stomach
Covers: jejunum & ileum
Composition: lacelike w/ fat deposits along vessels

21
Q

Omental bursa

A

Space between the two leaves of the greater omentum

22
Q

Gastrosplenic ligament

A

Section of greater omentum that attaches spleen to stomach

23
Q

Urinary bladder

A
When contracted (empty): lies on floor of pelvic inlet
When distended (full): lies on floor of abdomen & adapts in shape by displacing movable viscera
24
Q

Pelvic inlet

A

Area between abdomen & pelvis

25
Q

Uterus

A

Small
Consists of: short cervix, body, two long horns
Gravid uterus: lies on floor of abdomen, horns gravitate cranially & ventrally to lie medial to costal arch

26
Q

Spleen

A

Located in superficial leaf (along greater curvature of stomach)
Caudally: can reach a transverse plane to midlumbar region
Closely associated with circulatory system (fxns in destruction of old red blood cells)
Provides: lymphocytes & antibodies (absence can lead to predisposition to certain infections)

27
Q

Diaphragm

A
Muscular partition between thoracic & abdominal cavities
Muscle of inspiration
Parts: 
Tendinous center
Muscular periphery
Cupula
Aortic hiatus
Esophageal hiatus
Caval foramen
Arterial supply
28
Q

Tendinous center (diaphragm)

A

V-shaped non-muscular

29
Q

Muscular periphery (diaphragm)

A

Three parts:
Lumbar
Costal
Sternal

30
Q

Cupula

A

Cranial part bulges into thorax

31
Q

Aortic hiatus

A

Passageway for aorta, azygos vein, & thoracic duct

32
Q

Esophageal hiatus

A

Passageway for esophagus, vagal nerve trunk, esophageal vessels

33
Q

Caval foramen

A

Passageway for caudal vena cava

34
Q

Arterial supply (diaphragm)

A

The phrenic a. between cranial mesenteric a. & renal a.

35
Q

Liver

A
Secretes bile salts which emulsify ingested fat
Bile is stored in gallbladder
Each lobe contains a hepatic duct
Lobes (6):
Right lateral lobe
Right medial lobe
Quadrate lobe
Left medial lobe
Left lateral lobe
Caudate lobe (Caudate process & papillary process)
36
Q

Caudate lobe of liver

A

Caudate process: has renal impression

Papillary process: Lies in lesser curvature of stomach

37
Q

Gallbladder

A

Located in fossa between quadrate & right medial lobe of liver
Neck area continues cystic duct
Unite hepatic & cystic ducts to form bile duct

38
Q

Cystic duct

A

Continuation of neck area of gallbladder

39
Q

Bile duct

A

Union of hepatic & cystic ducts

Moves through descending duodenum & ends at major duodenal papilla

40
Q

Pancreas

A
Located in greater omentum
Parts: left lobe, body, right lobe
Secretes proteolytic enzymes (digestive enzyme) & insulin (controls blood sugar levels)
Ducts:
Pancreatic duct 
Accessory pancreatic duct
41
Q

Pancreatic duct

A

Smaller duct of pancreas

Empties with bile duct into duodenum at the major duodenal papilla

42
Q

Accessory pancreatic duct

A

Larger duct of pancreas

Empties into duodenum at the minor duodenal papilla

43
Q

Stomach (monogastric)

A
Parts:
Cardiac part
Fundus
Body
Pyloric antrum
Pylorus
44
Q

Cardiac part of stomach (m)

A

Situated near esophagus

Prevents backflow

45
Q

Fundus of stomach (m)

A

Dome-shaped

Lies left & dorsal to cardia

46
Q

Body of stomach (m)

A

Largest middle portion

47
Q

Pyloric antrum of stomach (m)

A

Narrowing portion of stomach into pyloric canal

48
Q

Pylorus of stomach (m)

A

Junction of pyloric canal w/ duodenum

49
Q

Cecum (horse)

A

Fermentation system analogous to the rumen
Structural carbs & starch is fermented
Difference to rumen: large quantity of microbial protein generated in equine large gut is wasted

50
Q

Ruminant (polygastric)

A
Feedstuff ->
Remun (papillae) ->
Reticulum (honeycomb) ->
Omasum (leaflets) ->
Abomasum (true stomach) -> 
Small intestine
51
Q

Small intestine

A

Duodenum (descending & ascending parts)
Jejunum
Ileum

52
Q

Duodenum

A

Arterial supply: Cranial pancreaticoduodenal a. -> celiac a.
Innervation:
(sympathetic) splanchnic fibers from cranial mesenteric ganglion (major splanchnic nerve)
(parasympathetic) vagus nerve
most fixed part of intestine
Origin: pylorus
Suspended by mesoduodenum

53
Q

Jejunum

A

Arterial supply: branches of cranial mesenteric a.
Innervation:
(sympathetic) splanchnic fibers from cranial mesenteric ganglion (minor splanchnic nerve)
(parasympathetic) vagus nerve
Forms coils of small intestine
Absorb nutrients

54
Q

Ileum

A

Arterial supply: Branches of. cranial mesenteric a.
Innervation:
(sympathetic) splanchnic fibers from cranial mesenteric ganglion (minor splanchnic nerve)
(parasympathetic) vagus nerve
Short terminal segment (boundaries: ileocecal fold & presence of vessels on intestinal anti-mesenteric surface)
Terminal portion
Connects with ascending colon at ileocolic orifice
Final stage of enzyme & carb digestion

55
Q

Ileocolic orifice

A

Connect ileum & ascending colon

56
Q

Large intestine

A

Cecum

Colon (ascending, transverse, descending)

57
Q

Cecum

A

Arterial supply: branches of cranial mesenteric a.
Innervation:
(sympathetic) splanchnic fibers from cranial mesenteric ganglion (minor splanchnic nerve)
(parasympathetic) vagus nerve
S-shaped blind tube located at junction of ileum & colon
Carnivores: small & function unclear
Herbivores: large due to bacteria aiding in enzymatic breakdown of plant material

58
Q

Cecolic orifice

A

Location of communication between cecum & ascending colon

59
Q

Colon (ascending)

A

Arterial supply: branches of cranial mesenteric a.
Innervation:
(sympathetic) splanchnic fibers from cranial mesenteric ganglion
(Parasympathetic) vagus nerve fibers

60
Q

Colon (transverse)

A

Arterial supply: branches of cranial mesenteric a.
Innervation:
(sympathetic) splanchnic fibers from cranial & caudal mesenteric ganglion
(parasympathetic) vagus nerve fibers

61
Q

Colon (descending)

A
Arterial supply: caudal mesenteric a.
Innervation: 
(sympathetic) lumbar part of sympathetic trunk, hypogastric n.
(parasympathetic) Pelvic n.
Continuous w/ rectum
62
Q

Colon

A

Water absorption

63
Q

Adrenal glands

A

Right & left
Regulate stress response via cortisol & adrenaline (epinephrine)
Secrete steroids: aldosterone, testosterone, & estrogen

64
Q

Right adrenal gland

A

Lies between caudal vena cava & caudate lobe of liver

65
Q

Left adrenal gland

A

Lies between aorta & left kidney

66
Q

Kidneys

A
Right & left (right is slightly higher)
Structures:
Ureters (lead to bladder)
Renal cortex (nephrons)
Renal medulla (pyramids)
Renal artery & vein
67
Q

Anatomy of female reproductive tract

A
Ovaries
Infundibulum
Uterine tube
Suspensory ligament of ovary
Proper ligament of ovary
Broad ligaments of uterus (mesometrium, mesovarium, mesosalpinx)
68
Q

Ovaries

A

Located near caudal pole of kidneys

Enclosed in thin-walled peritoneal sac called ovarian bursas

69
Q

Infundibulum

A

Fimbriated structure that catches the ova after ovulation

Leads into uterine tube

70
Q

Uterine tube

A

Small tube leaving bursa
Leads to uterine horn
Tubouterine junction (junction of uterine tube into uterine horn)

71
Q

Suspensory ligament of ovary

A

Holds the ovary in fixed position

Attached to body wall

72
Q

Proper ligament of ovary

A

Short

Attaches the ovary to cranial end of uterine horn

73
Q

Broad ligament of uterus (mesometrium)

A

Extends from abdominal wall to the ovaries, horns & uterine body.
Supports the reproductive tract in place

74
Q

Broad ligament of uterus (mesovarium)

A

Continuation of mesometrium

Attaches the ovary to lateral sublumbar region

75
Q

Broad ligament of uterus (mesosalpinx)

A

Peritoneum that attaches the uterine tube to mesovarium

Both layers of peritoneal form the wall of ovarian bursa

76
Q

Vascular supply to uterus

A

Via anastomosing ovarian & uterine arteries

77
Q

Sympathetic innervation of uterus

A

Paired through left & right hypogastric nerves

78
Q

Parasympathetic innervation of uterus

A

Paired through pelvic nerves

79
Q

Round ligament of uterus

A

Homologue of embryonic gubernaculum
Aids in descent of gonads
No function in adults

80
Q

Vagus nerve

A

C10
Carries sensory & motor fibers to/from viscera
At root of lungs, right & left divides into dorsal & ventral branches. Pass through esophageal hiatus of diaphragm & course along lesser curvature of stomach

81
Q

Abdominal aortic plexuses

A
Parasympathetic axons follow respective arteries
Named according to the branch of the aorta they are associated with
Parts:
Celiac
Cranial mesenteric
Caudal mesenteric
Adrenal
Aorticorenal
82
Q

Dorsal branch of vagus nerve

A

Meet near diaphgram

Forms dorsal vagal trunk

83
Q

Dorsal vagal trunk

A

Located on dorsal surface of terminal part of esophagus

Gives off celiac branch -> contributing to celiac & cranial mesenteric plexuses

84
Q

Ventral branch of vagus nerve

A

Meet caudal to root of lung

Forms ventral vagal trunk

85
Q

Ventral vagal trunk

A

Located on ventral surface of terminal part of esophagus

Supplies liver, stomach, & pylorus

86
Q

Splanchnic nerves

A

Paired nerves that innervate the viscera, carrying fibers of the autonomic nervous system as well as sensory fibers (visceral afferent fibers) from the organs.
Carry sympathetic fibers (except for the pelvic splanchnic nerves)

87
Q

Sympathetic trunk & splanchnic n.

A

Major splanchnic n.
Minor splanchnic n.
Lumbar splanchnic n.

88
Q

Celiacomesenteric ganglion & plexuses

A

Celiac ganglion

Cranial mesenteric ganglion

89
Q

List of splanchnic nerves

A
Sympathetic trunk & splanchnic nerves
Celiacomesenteric ganglion & plexuses
Caudal mesenteric ganglion
Sacral splanchnic nerves
Pelvic plexus
90
Q

Pelvic plexus

A

Sympathetic fibers from hypogastric nerves

Parasympathetic fibers from pelvic nerve

91
Q

Sacral splanchnic n.

A

Sacral part of sympathetic trunk

92
Q

Major splanchnic nerve

A

Leaves the sympathetic trunk at the level of the 12-13th thoracic sympathetic ganglion.
Passes dorsal to the crus of the diaphragm, enters abdominal cavity, & courses to adrenal gland to celiac & cranial mesenteric ganglion/plexuses

93
Q

Minor splanchnic nerves

A

Generally two.
Usually leave the last thoracic to 1st lumbar sympathetic ganglia.
Supply nerves to adrenal gland, & terminate in the celiac & cranial mesenteric ganglia/plexuses

94
Q

Lumbar splanchnic nerves

A

Arise from 2nd-5th lumbar sympathetic ganglia.

Distributed to aorticorenal, cranial mesenteric, & caudal mesenteric ganglia/plexuses

95
Q

Branches of abdominal aorta

A

Celiac a. (hepatic (cranial pancreaticoduodenal & right gastric aa.), left gastric, & splenic aa.)
Cranial mesenteric a. (middle coliac & right coliac aa. (ileocoli a.))
Phrenicoabdominal trunk (caudal phrenic & cranial abdominal aa.)
Renal aa.
Testicular & ovarian aa.
Lumbar aa.
Caudal mesenteric a.
Deep circumflex iliac aa.

96
Q

Portal venous system

A
Branches of portal veins that drain blood from abdominal viscera to liver (gets filtered by passing through capillary bed of sinusoids before it exits through hepatic vv. to enter caudal vena cava leading to heart)
Gastroduodenal v.
Splenic v.
Cranial mesenteric v.
Caudal mesenteric v.
Jejunal vv.
97
Q

Gastroduodenal vein

A

Drains the pancreas, stomach, duodenum, & greater omentum

98
Q

Splenic vein

A

Drains the spleen, stomach, pancreas, greater omentum, lesser curvature of stomach (left gastric v.)

99
Q

Cranial mesenteric vein

A

Drains the caudal duodenum, jejunum, ileum, right lobe of pancreas

100
Q

Caudal mesenteric vein

A

Drains the cecum & colon

101
Q

Jejunal veins

A

drains the jejunum

102
Q

Hepatic sinusoids

A

Sinusoids are special capillaries (channels) that receive blood from terminal branches of hepatic a. & hepatic portal v. & deliver to central vv.