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Flashcards in A+E Deck (11)
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Components of LA?

Anaesthetic, vasoconstrictor, vehicle, reducing agent, fungicide, preservative


What is anaphylaxis and what would you see?

Type I hypersensitivity
Swelling of tissue, facial flushing, cold and clammy skin, urticaria, wheezing, tachycardia, hypotension


Management anaphylaxis?

Lay pt flat
Adminsister 0.5ml adrenaline IM - repeat after 5 mins if needed
Ensure clear airway - 100% oxygen


Role of adrenaline?

Reverse peripheral vasodilation and reduce oedema
Dilation of airway
Suppress histamine and leyukotrine release


How may anaphylaxis be tx hospital?

10-20mg chlorphenamine IV
100mg hydrocortisone - reduce oedema and stabilise mast cell


Symptoms that might prompt to use adrenaline?

Angio-oedema - bronchospasm, larygngoedma, hypotension


Hospital tx?

1. Observation
2. Oxygen w/ face mask to help breathing
3. Fluid - increase BP
3. Antihistamien and steroid to relive symptoms


Use of immunologist?

IgE mediated attack occur previously sensitised people -
Referred to identify cause - reduce risk future reaction


What medical conditions/ allergies may put pt at risk of latex allergy?

Risk: atopy, spinabifida, asthma, hay fever, eczema
Food: avocado, chestnut, banana, kiwi

Immunological cross-reactivity between proteins and enzyme in food and latex


What is urticarial rash?

Raised, itchy red rash
Often caused high level of histamine -allergic reaction, infection, cold/ head exposure
First symptom of anaphylaxis


Tx urticarial rash?

Often not needed
Antihistamine can help discomfort
Short course steroid - severe case
Referral allergy testing (if +6week unlikely to be allergy)