Asthma Flashcards Preview

DEN 303 - PBL > Asthma > Flashcards

Flashcards in Asthma Deck (25)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is a blue inhaler?

Salbutamol - beta agonist

2

Define asthma?

Reversible airway obstruction that cause intermittent wheezing
= Reversible obstructive airway disease

3

What is a mast cell?

Inflammatory cell that release histamine in response to inflammatory response

4

Mechanism of mast cell releasing histamine?

1. Allergen cross link to receptor IgE
2. Intracellular response - trigger mast cell
3. catalysis intracellular process
4. secondary messenger = mast cell degranulation
5. histamine release

5

What does release of histamine cause?

Smooth muscle constriction = bronchoconstriction
Mucus hyper secretion - block bronchi
Mucus plug formation
Mucosal oedema

6

Name different types of asthma?

1. Extrinsic = atopic --> pollen, house dust mite faeces
2. Intrinsic = cold, exercise, stress
3. Aspirin induced
4. Occupation - latex, animal, vapour

7

What is a wheeze?
When do you get wheeze with asthma?

Polyphonic whistle sound
Wheeze on expirations

8

What is atopy?

Predisposition to developing hypersensitivity type reaction
(asthma, eczema)

9

What is SOB?

Shortness of breath = dyspnoea
Laboured breathing - use of accessory muscles and increased breathing rate

10

What drives breathing? - does this ever change?

Most people CO2 drive respiration
People w/ COPD have hypoxic drive (dangerous to overload with oxygen - 1 in 200 have it and takes 4 hours to knock out)

11

What is normal respiratory rate?
What rate would be classical asthma

12-16breath/min
Tachypnoea >20 breath/min
Asthma >25

12

Symptom of severe asthma?

Peak flow less 50% predicted, can't complete sentence, RR>25, HR>110

13

Symptom life threatening asthma?

Cyanosis, exhaustion, RR less 8

14

What is FEV1 and FVC?

FEV1= forced expiratory vol in 1 second - after full inspiration
FVC = forced vital capacity

15

How measure breathing?

Spirometer and peak flow meter

16

What expect to see in obstructive lung disease (FEV1/FVC)

Reduced FEV1 normal FVC
FEV1:FVC less 70%

17

How diagnose asthma?

Show FEV1:FVC less 70%
- need to show reversible

18

How to manage asthma w/ inhalers?

1. Reliever - manage attack by using short acting beta agonist

2. Preventer - don't relieve attack - use long acting beta agonist

19

What is the blue, brown and green inhaler?

Blue - salbutamol
Brown = steroid
Green = long acting

20

When is ipratropium bromide used?

Acute attack - can be brown colour

21

How does salbutamol work?

B2 agonist - stimulate B2 adrenoreceptor relaxing smooth muscle

22

Explain step wise approach asthma?

1. Short acting beta agonist
2. Steroid inhaler
3. Long acting beta agonist
4. Increase steroid dose/ montelukast
5. Oral steroid - short term

23

Assessing control asthma in dental setting?

Medication take
Admission A+E/ICU
Frequency of attack
Functional limitation

24

Emergency management of acute asthma?

1. ABC
2. Salbutamol
3. Oxygen
4. Ambulance - hypoxic, feature severe asthma

25

How is asthma tx in hospital?

1. High flow oxygen
2. Nebulised
3. Prednisolone - prevent late T cell response
4. No response - escalate Mg