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Flashcards in A & P Deck (38)
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1

V1 and V2

-septal leads
-septal perforators off of LAD

2

V3 and V4

-anterior lead
-LAD

3

L1 and V5 and V6 and aVL

-lateral wall leads
-left circumflex artery

4

L2 and L3 and aVF

-inferior leads
-right coronary artery

5

First branch off off right coronary artery

conus

6

Afterload

resistance to ejection of blood from ventricles

7

Afterload - Increased in

-vasoconstriction as from sympathetic nervous system stimulation or vasopressors
-hypertension
-aortic valve disease
-hypercoagulability
-pulmonary hypertension

8

Afterload - Deceased in

-hypotension
-vasodilation
-vasodilators

9

Preload

end-diastolic; "filling pressure"

10

Preload - Increased in

-heart failure
-hypervolemia
-bradydysrhythmias

11

Preload - Decreased in

-hypovolemia
-excessive vasodilation
-increased intrathoracic pressure
-cardiac tamponade
-right ventricular failure or infarction
-tachydysrhythmias
-loss of atrial contraction

12

Cardiac Output

-the amount of blood pumped by the heart in liters per minute
-calculated as heart rate x stroke volume
-normal range is 4.0 to 6.0 liters per minute

13

Rapid diastolic filling

passive filling

14

Reduced diastolic filling

"diastasic"
-coronary blood flow is optimal

15

Atrial contraction

-this subphase is also referred to as "atrial kick" or "atrial systole"
-contributes to 15 to 30% of diastolic filling volume

16

Isovolumetric contraction

-contraction increases pressure in the ventricles, but there is no change in volume due to the AV valves are closed and the semilunar valves have not yet opened
-this subpage accounts for 2/3 of oxygen consumption of the ventricles

17

Rapid ventricular ejection

aortic and pulmonary arterial pressures increase rapidly and ventricular volume decreases rapidly

18

Reduced Ejection

"protodiastole"

19

Isovolumetric Relaxation

-relaxation occurs and ventricular pressure decreases
-volume does not change because the semilunar valves are closed and the atrioventricular valves have not yet opened

20

Chemoreceptors

input from carbon dioxide-sensing cells in the carotid bodies and the aorta

21

Baroreceptors

pressure - sensing cells in the carotid bodies (located at the carotid bifurcation) and the aortic arch

22

Medullary Ischemic Response

cerebral perfusion in the difference between mean arterial pressure and intracranial pressure

23

Increased Inotropy

-stroke volume and cardiac output
-increases workload of the heart and myocardial oxygen requirements
-sympathetic stimulation

24

Decreased Inotropy

-myocardial ischemia or infarction
-cardiomyopathy
-hypoxemia
-acidosis

25

Obtuse marginals

supply blood to the LV

26

Left atrial branch

supplies blood to the LA

27

Diagonal branches

supply blood to the anterior LV free wall

28

Acute marginals

to the right ventricular free wall

29

Septal perforators

supply blood to the inter ventricular septum anteriorly

30

Starling's Law

an increase in ventricular filling pressure (preload) will be met with a proportional increase in contractile force